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Published by the Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass.US.. A 

Slip fRa£aari)itS£tt0 fHarjazin? 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


.Salem, Mass. 


Deerfield, Mass Salem, Mass. 


Bangor, Me. Salem, Mass. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 

NO. 1 

JANUARY, 1916 


(Eattients nf tfjis dlssu? 

Library of the American Antiquarian 
Society . 

Agnes Edwards 

Colonel Moses Little's Regiment Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 


Criticism and Comment 


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SUBSCRIPTIONS should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. Subscriptions are S3 
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ON SALE. Copies of this Magazine are on sale, in Boston, at W. B. Clark & Co'.«, 26 Tr . • - - •- • 
Corner Book Store, 29 Bromfield Street, Smith & McCance, Park Street; in Xeu York, at John Wannan 
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Entered as second-class matter, March 13, 190S, at the post-office, at Salem, Mass., under the Act of Cor.jrrcsa. 
of March 3, 1S79. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



By Agnes Edwards 

One of the most impressive and valuable historical libraries in the United 
States is housed in Antiquarian Hall, the headquarters of the American 
Antiquarian Society, in Worcester, Mass. A two-story building of red 
brick and white marble, with a marble dome and marble columns, it is set 
in dignified spaciousness on a large, quiet lot, well out of the center of the 
town. The reasorf that Worcester was chosen for its location, rather than 
Boston, was explained by the sagacious founder as being "for the better 
preservation from the destruction so often experienced in large towns and 
cities by fire, as well as from the ravages of an enemy, to which seaports. 
in particular, are exposed in time of war." Not only in placing it inland, 
but in making this latest and most elaborate home of the society absolute- 
ly fireproof, has every precaution been taken to protect those priceless vol- 
umes, manuscripts and antiques which have been so discriminately and 
widely collected since the society was founded, by Isaiah Thomas, in 1812. 

The present building is the fourth home of the institution, so rapidly has 
rt grown in its little over a century of existence. Now scholars and research 
workers from all over the world may find a congenial and stimulating at- 
mosphere in which to study, with every convenience — adequate room, pri- 
vacy, heat, light and scrupulously attentive service. 


Entering the rotunda, lighted by the great central dome, one res- 
ponds instantly to the atmosphere of tranquility. The gleaming 
high columns of Siena marble, the gray tone of the walls, the ch 
pieces of old furniture — including John Hancock's clock, one of the 
tallest and handsomest in this country, standing serenely on t he- 
landing of the winding white stairway, chiming out each quarter hour — 
all infuse their quota of mellowness and dignity. Although the Muse- 
um — of which the society was once justly proud — has been wisely distrib- 
uted among other institutions — there are still sufficient historical relics 
both to furnish the building and to serve for exhibition purposes. Per- 
haps before we begin a survey of the actual departments of the library we 
may, by walking through the building, catch something of that spirit of rev- 
erence for the past which actuates the founding and the maintaining of 
all such organizations. 

At the right of the main entrance stands the splendid old desk at which 
John Hancock often stood to write: in the white panelled "council room" 
are a dozen or more of his dining chairs, flawless in their ancient, graceful 
silhouette. Secretaries belonging to Governor Leverett, Governor Belcher 
and Governor Bowdoin are placed in useful and effective places, while up- 
stairs one sees John Hancock's double chair — a choice specimen of carving, 
unique in this country and quite worth a special trip to Worcester. Richard 
Mather's high chair — he who was grandfather of Cotton — stands firm and 
sturdy, as does the venerable printing press on which Isaiah Thomas leal 
the trade, and on -which the "Massachusetts Spy'' was printed for many 
years. At the time of the battle of Lexington it was hastily conveyed to 
Worcester, so that the issuing of the paper might not be interrupted. There 
are many interesting curios here, whose history would easily expand into 
another article. We must omit them, but it is not possible to tear our- 
selves away without a glance at the collection of dark blue Staffordshire 
ware, which was presented to the Society by Mrs. Emma DeFrance Morse. 
This extraordinary set — without question the most complete oi its kind in 
existence — presents many American views which are not preserved in any 



other form. It is only a few pieces short of the requisite three hundred 
is not only of immense interest to all lovers of pottery, but supplen 
effectively the Society's collection of American prints. 

But the Amercian Antiquarian Society is not a body of collector- of an- 
tiques. It is a scholarly institution of the highest possible rank, to which 
the greatest historians of our country have belonged, and it is due to its 
specialization along certain Hues that it has made itself a vital contributor 
to our national history. 

Beginning with Isaiah Thomas, the founder — justly ranked as one of the 
most liberal minded men of his day — and continuing down to the present 
librarian, Clarence S. Brigham — distinguished as editor, author, and contrib- 
utor to historical and genealogical magazines — the society has con- Lat- 
ently maintained one aim. 

This aim, emphasized in the past half dozen years, is to collect every- 
thing printed in this country before 1820. This date was chosen because 
it included the establishment of printing presses in most of the smaller town-, 
because it covers the Jeffersonian Period, the War of 1812 and the Era of 
Reconstruction, and marks the beginning of stereotype printing. The value 
of such a collection to the student of early American history, literature, 
law, medicine, theology, education, and science is apparent. Obvi is- 
ly such an accumulation falls into three general classes: newspapers, books 
and manuscripts. It is through its files of early American newspapers that 
this library stands supreme. The founder of the Society, as editor oi the 
"Massachusetts Spy", had exceptional opportunities to acquire early 
loriial journals. In fact, in the preparation of his famous work "The His- 
tory of Printing in America" he obtained specimens of practically all the 
newspapers in the country. All of these he turned over to the society when 
he became its president. As the ambition has been to obtain unbroken rile< 
of all the American newspapers throughout the Civil War, the magnitude 
of the task needs no emphasizing. Although the early files are not entire- 
ly complete, every day brings fresh acquisitions — such as the comparative- 
ly recent purchase of the "Alexandria Gazette" covering a period of a hun- 


dred and ten years, and of the "Reading Adler," long honored as the olde-t 
German newspaper in this country, covering one hundred and seventeen 
years. Among the longer of the earlier files are: 

New Hampshire Sentinel, 1799-1873 

New Hampshire Patriot, 1809-1876 

Boston News Letter, 1704-1763 

Boston Gazette, 1720-1798 

Boston Post, 1735-1775 - 

Massachusetts Spy, 1770-1904 

Providence Gazette, 1763-1825 

Connecticut Courant, 1776-1916 

New York Gazette, 1765-1800 

New York Weekly Journal, 1733-1750 

New York Herald, 1794-1908 

American Weekly Mercury, 1719-1746 

Pennsylvania Gazette, 1736-1810 

Reading Adler, 1796-1913 

Maryland Journal, 1773-1796 

Alexandria Gazette, 1799-1911 

* Since 1870 about three dozen journals, — representing characteristic sec- 
tions of the country — have been kept! But even the most rigid paring can- 
not stem the enormous flood of papers which crowd in daily for a place upon 
the shelves, and which require two special floors, with capacity for 14,000 
volumes. No other ■ libraries — except the Congressional and the Wiscon- 
sin Historical — have even attempted any such task. Now, arranged al- 
phabetically, as regards state and town, and also chronologically, these 
files are accessible to anyone. A bibliography of them is also being prepared. 
Here, too, one ? s attention is called to the growing collection of South American 
and West India newspapers. 

The manuscript department, in a large room with 562 running feet of 
shelving, is most important. Following is the list of some of the most sig- 
nificant and treasured pieces. 


Interleaved almanacs from 1774 to 1828, containing the diary of 
Isaiah Thomas. Chiefly of interest because of its allusions 
to Worcester events, and the founding and early years of the An- 
tiquarian Society. Six hundred letters addressed to ThoD 

As first president of the society, Thomas was a national figure, and 
there are very few editors today who possess a correspondence 
of such national concern. 

Diary of John Hull, Mint Master of Massachusetts in 1652. Val- 
uable for its facts concerning the coinage of the 17th century. 

Note book of Thomas Lechford of Boston, 1638-1(341. This is the 
daily record of the work done in the office of the only profes- 
sional lawyer in the colony. Lechford's duties brought him into 
close relations with people of every class, and his notes throw 
light on the social questions and customs, local geography, points 
of family history, and the development of the political life of the 

The manuscripts of the Mather family, comprising several hundred 
manuscripts and including letters, diaries, sermons and essays. 
Under ^Richard^Mat her there are several important papers on 
church government from 1635-1657 and a large number 
of manuscript sermons. For Increase Mather there are his 
diaries, covering approximately 1659-1721, written in inter- 
leaved almanacs. Also his biography written for his child- 
ren and few miscellaneous essays. Cotton Mather is repre- 
sented by a dozen diaries, nearly three hundred letters and 
many treatises on religion, theology, medicine and morals. 
Included also in the collection are a few manuscripts oi less 
noted members of the Mather family. 

The Cotton manuscripts. Aside from several volume- oi notes 
and accounts, this collection contains over 700 individual man- 
uscripts written by early New Englanders from 1640 to 1775. 

Next comes several groups of manuscripts dealing with the long strug- 
gle between England and France for the possession of the American continent. 
This includes: 


Miscellaneous muster rolls and papers from 1726-1731. Robert fl 

journal of his voyage to Nova Scotia 1731. Sir William Pep- 
perrell's journal of his expedition against Louisburg in 1745. 

Manuscripts of Sir William Johnson in regard to the closing y 
of the French War. 

Eleven orderly books or diaries for the same period. 

Orderly book of William Henshaw in regard to expedition against 
Fort Edward. 

Much Revolutionary War material including: 

40 orderly books, letter books and similar matter. 
Military papers of Brig. Gen. John XLxon and Maj. Gen. Wil- 
liam Heath. 
Correspondence of Stephen Kemble, John Beatty and Egbert 
Benson as to British and Loyalist prisoners. 

Various petitions from single regiments and groups of officers to 
their respective states or to Continental Congress. 

The reply of the garrison at West Point to Washington's farewell 
address, Nov.. 10, 1783. 

Important autographs and letters of Adams, Hancock, Jefferson, 
Sherman, Livingston, Rodney, Trumbull, Washington, Greene, 
Schuyler, Lord Stirling, Gates, Conway, Charles Lee, Burgoyne, 
Carleton, etc. 

The Bentley manuscripts, 1783-1819, including 3S bound volumes 
of accounts and notebooks, a 13-volume diary and over 1500 
miscellaneous letters. These letters are from some of the most 
distinguished heads of cities, states and universities in the conn- 

The Craigie papers, a 6-volume collection, descriptive of the settle- 
ment of the Ohio Valley and the rise of the Scioto Company. 

The Burr collection, including letters of Washington. Jefferson, 
Hamilton, Sherman and Morris, and many other famous states- 

The Lincoln collection, in two parts, touching local, state and 
national affairs. 

The Merrick collection, throwing much light on the Anti-Masonic 
movement of 1830. 

J 1 

/ | jlj 


The John Davis Collection, including notes and plans of political 
campaigns, outlines of speeches, legal arguments, etc. Also 
many autograph letters from leaders of the Whigs. 

The Salisbury Collection, pertinent to economic conditions and trade 
relations in New England in 18th and 19th centuries. Over 
10,000 letters. 

Here, too, must be mentioned the original vellum bound "Records for 
the Council for New England from 1622-23'' — one of New England's most 
precious books. 

Many of the more noteworthy of the society's manuscripts have been 
published in full. 

Next in value must come the Mather library. This assemblage of early 
volumes is carefully housed in a special room of its own, and is undoubt- 
edly the oldest and rarest in New England. These quaint brown volumes. 
chiefly theological and largely written in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, contrast 
oddly with the modern white fire proof shelves on which they are 1 ranged. 
Fromthegray panelled walls portraits of the five Mathers — Richard, Increase. 
Cotton and the two Samuels — look down upon the intruder with reserved 

After the Mather collection we turn to the unusually profuse as- 
sortment of almanacs. These sidelights upon our national life have a sep- 
arate and commodious room, and have been classified and catalogued in a 
most scholarly way by Dr. Chas. L. Nichols, who has made a special study 
of the subject. There are about 6000 of them, from all parts of the coun- 
try — including about 5000 issues before the year 1S50, and showing a ma- 
jority of those published in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Next in importance must come the rich aggregation of early text books. 
There are about 10,000 volumes, including a shelf of old shorthand text 
books, and the most unique assortment of old American arithmetics in • \- 
istence. Naturally, this department is invaluable to students oi pedag g} 

The library is also especially strong in early publications oi the United 



States^Governrnent, in early American Bible-, hymn books, psalm books 
and Indian Linguistics. Among these should be mentioned: 

Both editions of Eliot's Indian Bible. 

Several Early Indian Tracts. 

The Bay Psalm Book of 1640, the first book printed in this country. 

The 1649 edition on the Cambridge platform. 

Secretary Rawson's copy of the Massachusetts laws of 1660. 

First Edition of Lewis Bailey's "Practice of Piety" translated into 

the English tongue by Eliot. 
Cicero's Cato Major, printed by Benjamin Franklin. 

The list of "first books" possessed by the Society is extraordinarily in- 
teresting. As for instance: 

Echantillon, par Ezechiel Carre, 1690. The first French book printed 

in this country. 
Truth Advanced, George Kieth, 1694. The first book printed in 

New York. 
"La Fe del Christiano," 1699. The first book printed in this country 

in Spanish. 
The Saybrook Confession, 1710. The first book printed in Con- 
Barclay's Apology, 1729. The first book printed in Rhode Island. 
The Englishman Deceived. Sayre, 176S. The first book printed in 

Narrative of King's Troops. Isaiah Thomas. The first book printed 

in Worcester. 
Discourse by Bereanus Theosebes, 17S6. The first book printed in 

The first public library catalogue printed in this country. (Harvard 

College, 1723) 
The Saur Bible, 1743. The first Bible printed in this country in a 

European language. 
Vindication, by Ethan Allen, 1770. The first year of Vermont printing. 
The Aitken Bible, 1789. The rarest American Bible. 
The Thomas Bible. Worcester 1791. The first folio Bible printed in 

English in this country. 


Another point in which this library is very strong is in its county and 
town histories of the United States. The Xew England Historical 
and Genealogical Society attempts to get every local history published 
of the Alleghenies. Harvard College Library has recently begun to collect 
the local history of certain Western States. But at Antiquarian Hall is the 
only library which aspires to gather all the histories, including the South- 
ern States, the far West, etc. The collection of Xew York and Pennsylvania 
local histories is the largest in Xew England. 

The department of Spanish Americana is growing, and includes works 
on Mexico, Central and South America, Mexican Indian Dialect and early 
Mexican imprints and bibliography, most of them printed in foreign tongues. 

The print and map room is particularly fascinating. Situated in the 
west wing on the second floor, it contains fireproof cabinets, which can 
hold 30,000 flat pieces, and here are some of the earliest maps and prints 
of this country. They are constantly being referred to, either personally 
or through correspondence, by students all over the country. The broad- 
sides are numerous, and include: 

The proclamation by the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, 

regarding the first newspaper (1690); 
A great mass of Revolutionary broadsides; 

A considerable number of Fast and Thanksgiving day proclamations. 
Three volumes of songs and ballads of the War of 1S12. 

Lovers of bookplates will be interested to know that among the 3500 
examples which this library possesses is probably the earliest recorded 
American bookplate in existence. The label bears the words "William Brattle ; 
his book. 77." As William Brattle graduated from Harvard in 1680, one 
can reckon "the antiquity of this book plate. There are many specimens 
the plates of Spenceley, French and Sidney L. Smith, and also of some of 
the most famous American bookplate engravers before the Revolution, 
among them, Nathaniel Hurd and Paul Revere. 

The collection of tradesmen's currency or copper tokens of the Civil 
War period is unusually fine. There are about 1900 varieties, comprising 


about 1550 advertising tokens, and 350 general tokens, — an invaluable aid 
to any student of the economic history of the Civil War. 

One extremely useful feature of this library is the fact that it is a de- 
pository for the Library of Congress cards. Adding about 40,000 annually, 
it thus enables one to refer instantly to the title and author of nearly every 
book published in this country in recent years. 

No mention of the American Antiquarian Society is complete without 
mention of its publications — in two series, the Transactions and Proceed- 
ings. The Transactions were established in 1820; the Proceedings in 1S39. 
A list of some of the subjects treated in these two publications will indicate 
the nature of their scope. Of the Transactions: 

Volume 1 includes "Descriptions of the Antiquities of Ohio and Other 
Western States:'' valuable for its accuracy of text and plans; 

Hennepin's Discovery of the Mississippi. 

Johnson's Indian Tribes of Ohio, with vocabularies. 

Sheldon's "Account of the Caraibs of the Antilles." 

Volume 2 includes Gallatin's "Indian Tribes of North America." 

Daniel Gookin's "Historical Account of the Christian Indians of 
New England." 

Volume 3 prints Records of the Company of the Massachusetts Bay 
from 1628 to 1630 and the diaries of John Hull. 

Volume 4, 1860, contains "Original Documents, illustrating the his- 
tory of the Colony of Jamestown." 

Narration of a Voyage to Spitzbergen in 1613. 

A reprint of Wingfield's Discourse on Virginia. 

Josselyn's "New England Rarities Discovered." 

Volumes 5 and 6 form the second edition of Thomas's "History of 
Printing in America." 

Volume 7 prints the note-book of Thomas Lechford, 1638-1641. 

Volume* 8, the Diary of Christopher Columbus Baldwin, Librarian of 
the Society, 1829-1835, a charming pen picture of the period. 

Volumes 9 and 10 publish the diary of Isaiah Thomas. 1805-1828 

Volume 11, Manuscript Records of the French and Indian War 

Volume 12, Royal Proclamations concerning America. 1606-1783, 
printed from the originals in various archive repositories in England. 


The following list, selected from the varied contributions to the proceed- 
ings, will show the wide range of the papers and the distinguished writers 
who have been proud to add to this notable publication. 

Notes on the Laws of New Hampshire: Albert H. Hoyt. 

Burgoyne's Surrender: Charles Deane. 

Bibliography of Indian Dialects: J. Hammond Trumbull. 

Bibliography of Yucatan and Central America: A. F. Bandelier 

The Office of Tithingman: Herbert B. Adams. 

History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. George H. Moore. 

Archaeological research in Yucatan: Edward H. Thompson. 

Estimates of Population in the American Colonies: Franklin B. 

Illustrated Americana, 1493-1624, and of the Revolution: James 

F. Hunnewell. 
The Navigation Laws: Edward Channing. 
Dr. Saugrain's Journal, Ohio River, 1788: Eugene F. Bliss. 
Early American Broadsides: Nathaniel Paine. 
Early New England Catechisms: Wilberforee Eames. 
The Andros Records: Robert N. Toppan. 
The Roger Sherman Almanacs: Victor H. Paltsits. 
Early Spanish Cartography of the New World: Edward L. Stevenson. 
New Jersey Printing in the ISth Century: Wm. Nelson. 
List of Massachusetts Almanacs. 1639-1S50: Charles L. Nichols. 
List of Connecticut Almanacs, 1709-1850: Albert C. Bate-. 
Royal Disallowance of Colonial Laws: Charles M. Andrews. 

Antiquarian Hall has, in common with other libraries of this type, many 
genealogies, etc. But it has made its country-wide reputation by special- 
izing in certain departments. It may be well to summarize these briefly 
again before we close: 

The unusually dignified, pleasing and convenient building, with its 33.400 
runningfeetof shelves — over six miles — with a total capacity of about 200.000 

The remarkable completeness of the newspaper files and American im- 
prints up to 1820. 


Its valuable and significant manuscripts. 

The Mather Library — the oldest in Xew England. 

Its collection of Almanacs. 

Early School Books. 

Early American Bibles, hymn and psalm books. 

Maps and Prints 

Early American Broadsides. 

Bookplates, including the earliest recorded one in America. 

The published series of the Transactions and Proceedings. 

The student at the library of the American Antiquarian Society at Wor- 
cester will find here volumes of incalculable value to him, properly arranged 
and catalogued, and he will be favored by careful attention from the librarian 
and assistants. 

The more casual visitor, who, perhaps, has no definite business in such 
a place, cannot help but enjoy a glimpse of this handsome and scholarly in- 
stitution, beautified by its well chosen furnishings and made charming by 
the hospitality and wide culture of its hosts. 

The membership of the American Antiquarian Society, which is entirely 
honorary, and obtainable through invitation only, candidates being ele 
for prominence in historical research, is as follows: 


Alphabetically Arranged 
Name Residence Name Res id en ce 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D. New Haven, Conn. *Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D. Xew Haver.. C 

Henry Adams, LL.D Washington, D. C. Hubert Howe Bancroft, A. M. San Frua:-oo. Cal. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., *Edmund Mills Barton . . . .Worcester. M 

Urbana, 111. John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D. Northampton, ! . 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., * Albert Carlos Bates Hartford. C an. 

Philadelphia, Pa. James Phinney Baxter, Litt D. Portland. Me. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, D.D . Woodmont, Conn. William Beer New Orleans, La, 

Charles McLean Andrews, Ph.D., Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D. Was C 

New Haven, Conn. Hiram Bingham, Ph.D. . . .New Haven. Conn. 

Edward Everett Ayer . . . .Chicago, 111. *William Keeuey Bixby. LI. D. St. Louis. Mo, 

Thomas Willing Balch, LL.B. Philadelphia, Pa. George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D.. 

Worcester, Mass. 

♦Life Members. 




Fun. tie Frederick Bliss, A.M . Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Frani Boas, Ph.D New York, N. Y. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D. Berkeley, Cal. 
•Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., 

Boston, Mass. 
•Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., 

New York, N. Y. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A. M., 

Worcester, Mass. 
Augustus George Bullock, A. M.Worcester, Mass. 
George Lincoln Burr, LL.D. . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M Detroit, Mich. 
•Edward Channing, Ph.D. . . Cambridge, Mass. 
•Howard Millar Chapin, A. B. Providence, R. I. 

Reuben Colton, A. B Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Morris Conant. . . . Pawtucket, R. I. 
•Archibald Cary Coolidge, Ph.D., 

Boston, Mass. 
•Henry Winchester Cunningham, A B. 

Manchester, Mass. 
•Andrew McFarland Davis, A. M., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Horace Davis, LL.D San Francisco, Cal. 

•Livingston Davis, A.B. . . Milton, Mass. 
•Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M. Worcester, Mass. 
•Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., 

New Haven, Conn. 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D. .Cambridge, Mass. 

George Francis Dow Salem, Mass. 

Frank Farnum Dresser, A. M . Worcester, Mass. 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., 

Laramie, Wyo. 
William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., 

New York, N. Y. 
Theodore Frelinghuysen D wight, Boston, Mass. 
Wilberforce Eames, A. M.. . New York, N. Y. 
•Henry Herbert Edes, A. M., Cambridge, Mass. 
Edmund Arthur Engler.LL.D., St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles Evans Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D New Haven, Conn. 

•John Whittemore Farwell . Boston, Mass 
Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D... Washington, D, C. 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D . . . Madison, Wis. 
William Trowbridge Forbes, A. B., 

Worcester, Mass. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, A. M., 

Boston, Mass. 
•William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., Providence, R. I. 

Homer Gage, M.D Worcester, Mass. 

•Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B . Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Austin Samuel Garver, A.M.. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A. B.»Ware, Mass. 

Name Rf.*A>"v<! 

•Samuel Abbott Gr.^n, LL.D., Boston. ; • . 
•Samuel Swett Green, A. M., Worcester. Man 

Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B.. 

Brookiin?. M .-^ 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D.. 

Amherst. M u 
Lewis Winters Gunckel. Ph B. Dayton, < 
Granville Stanley Hall. LL.D. Worc-rst-r. Miss 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A. M. S in Jn >..o. Porto Rico. 
Otis Grant Hammond . . .. Concord. X. H. 

William Harden Savannah. Gx 

Albert Busbnell Hart, LL.D. Cambridge. M is 
•Rev. SamuelHart. LL.D . . Middletoira 
•George Henry Havnes, Ph.D. Wbrcefl r, Mass 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A. B. Worcestt-r Miss 
Frederick Webb Hoi,'?. . . Washiasfm. D. C. 
•Samuel Yerplanck Ho :m:;n New York, N*. Y. 
Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D. . . Worses: er. 3 I 
William Henry Holmes . . . Washington. D. C. 
Archer Butler lLilb..Tt. A. M. Marietta. Ohio. 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D. fihaca. N. Y 
Gaillard Hunt, LL.D. . . . Washington. D. C . 
Archer Milton Huntington, A.M.. 

New York. X Y. 
Henry Edwards Huntington, New Yor<. X V 
John Franklin Jarcesan. LL.D. .Washington. D. C. 
•Lawrence Waters Jeniins . Salem, M iss. 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jen'cs. A.M.. Canton. Mass. 
Charles Francis Jennev. LL.B.. Hyde Par<. Mass. 
Henry Phelps Jol.-nsion, A. M., Xew Vor ■;. X. Y. 
John Woolf Jordan, LL. D. . Philadelphia. Pa. 
William Vail Kel!en. LL.D. . Boston Mas- 
Lincoln Newton Kinnicitt, Worreit?r. Mis?. 
George Lyman Kittr r 'dj:e. LL.D Cam' -, ni;\ Ma.-- 
Rev. Shepherd Knapo, D. D. Wore- iter, Mas. 
Alfred L. Kroeber. Ph.D. . . San Frm.-i-eo. Cal. 
William Coolidge Lane, A. B. Cambridge, Miaa. 
John Holladay Latane. Ph.D. Baltimore. M 1. 
*Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D.. 

Boston. Mas;. 
♦Waldo Lincoln. A. B. . . Worcester. Misi 
William Ro^eoe Livermore . Boston, M .-- 
•Henry Cabot Lod.r>. LL.D . Nahant. M .-; 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard Wore-^te-. Mass 

Arthur Lord, A.B P'.ymoath. Mas--. 

•Joseph Florimond Loubat. LL.D . 

Paris. France. 
Rev. William DeLoss Love. Fh.D.. 

Hartford, Conn. 
•Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D . 

Camhrii.:*. Moss 
William Denison Lyman, A.M. Walla, Waih. 



Name Residence 

Alexander George McAiJe, A.M., 

Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D 
William MacDonald, LL.D. 
Andrew Cunningham McLaugl 

Winchester, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
[in, A.M., 
Chicago, 111. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Boston, Mass. 


John Bach MeMaster, LL.D. 
Albert Matthews, A. B.. . . 
Edwin Doak Mead, A.M. . . Boston, 
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D.. 

Pavenna, Ohio. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A B. Framingham, Mass. 
♦Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
♦Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D. Boston, Mass. 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Ph.D. Salem, Mass. 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L. H. D. Providence, R. I. 
♦Charles Lemuel Nichols, M. D. Worcester, Mass. 
♦Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B. 

Boston, Mass. 
Herbert Levi Osgood, Ph. D. New York, N. Y. 
Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., 

Montgomery, Ala. 
Nathaniel Paine, A. M . . . Worcester, Mass. 
William Pendleton Palmer . . Cleveland, Ohio. 
Victor Hugo Paltsits .... New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., 

Pennypacker's Mills, Pa. 
George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D. New York, N. Y. 
Herbert Putnam, LL. D. . . Washington, D. C. 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D. . Madison. Wis. 
♦James Ford Rhodes, LL.D. Boston, Mass. 
♦Franklin Pierce Rice . . . Worcester, Mass. 
♦Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D. Worcester, Mass. 
♦Elias Harlow Russell . . . Tilton, N. H. 
Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr. Columbia, S. C. 

Marshall Howard Saville . . 
James Schouler, LL.D. . . . 
Albert Shaw, LL.D .... 
William Milligan Sloan, LL.D. 

New York, N. Y. 
Intervale, N. H. 
New York, N. Y. 

Princeton, N J. 
Boston, 2 
Boston. Mass. 
Framingham. Majs. 

Charles Card Smith, A. M 

Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D. 

♦Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A. B 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D. Baltimore, Mi 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., 

New York. N. Y. 
William Howard Taft. LL.D New Haven, Conn. 
♦Charles Henry Taylor, Jr. . Boston. Mm. 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D . . . Washington, D. C. 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A. M. Haverford, Pa. 
Alfred Marston Tozzsr, Ph.D Cambridge, Mass. 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., 

Julius Herbert Tuttle . . . Dedham, Mm. 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D. Williamsburg. Va. 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A. M. Bo3ton, Mass. 
♦Samuel Utley, LL.B. . . . Worcester. M_lss. 
Rev. Charles Stuart Yedder, LL.D.. 

Charleston. S. C. 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D. Ne>v Haven, Conn. 
Charles Crennll Washburn, A.B.. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Wash!- urn.. 

Cambridge. Mass. 
Barrett Wendell. LittD. . . Boston. Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M. D. . . . Worcester. M.1S& 
Andrew Dickson White. D.C.L Ithaen. N. Y. 
Albert Henry Whitin . . . Whitinsville. Mass. 
Woodrow Wilson. LL.D . . Washington, D. C. 
♦George Parker Winship. A.M. Provident. R. I. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop . Boston, Mass. 
Henry Ernest Woods, A. M . Bosto •, M is- 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D.. 

Worcester, Mass. 


Juan B. Ambrosetti .... 

Buenos Aires, 
Samuel A. Lafone Quevedo, M.A. 

La Plata, Argentina 
Manuel Vicente Ballivian . . .La Paz., Bolivia 

Jose Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B. . 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 


Narcisse-Eutrope Dionne, LL.D. 

Quebec. Canada 
Arthur George Doughty. Litt.D. Ottawa. Canada 
William Larson Grant. A.M. Kincston, Canada 

William Woo 1, DC T Quebec, C. 

George McKinnonWrcr.i:. A M. Toronto CaraJa 

Jose Toribio Medina . . Saotiajra de Chile 

Federico Gonzalez Suarcz . .Quito Eeu-idor 



Henry Vignaud Bagneux, Seine, France Jchann Christcph VoHgrafT, L.H.D., 


Otto Keller, Ph.D Stuttgart MEXICO 

Johannes Conrad, LL.D . . .Halle Edward Herbert Thompson . . Meri-ia. V. 

Eduard Seler, Pb.D Berlin Nicolas Leon, Ph. D Mexico 

GREAT BRITAIN* Genaro Garcia Mexico 

Rt. Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L. Sussex Antonio Penafiel .... Mexico 

Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D. Oxford NORWAY 

Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D. . . .Oxford Roald Amundsen .... Christiania 

Hubert Hall London PERU 

Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D Washington. D C 

Shelsley, Kew Gardens PORTUGAL 

Alfred Per cival Maudslay . .London Bernardino Mach ado . . . .Lisbon 

Vere Langford Oliver .... Sunninghill WEST INDIES 

Sir George Otto Trevely an .. London Frank Cundall Kingston. Jamaica 



Colonel Moses Little's 24th Regiment, Provincial Army, April-July 
1775 — Colonel Moses Little's 17th Regiment Army of the 
United Colonies, July-Dec. 1775 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

This regiment was composed entirely of men from Essex County towns. 
Colonel Little's time of enlistment is given as May 1, 1775, and his adjutant. 
Stephen Jenkins, and Quartermaster, Thomas Hodgkins, three days later. 
The following petition shows that the regiment was organized in the last 
days of May. 

"To the Honble Committee of Safety for the Colony of Massachusetts 


We the Subscribers, being Captains of the Companies now en- 
listed in the Service of the Government have made Choice of Capt. M< - - 
Little to be our Chief Colonel, and Major Isaac Smith to be our Lieutenant 

Colonel, & have agreed that shall be our Major. We beg that your 

Honors will be pleased to direct or recommend that the aforesd Persons 
may be commissioned as officers over us & your Petitioners as in Duty bound 
shall ever pray. 

Cambridge, May 25, 1775. 

Xo. of Men 
Joseph Gerish 59 

Ezra Lunt 61 

Nat hi Warner 59 

Abraham Dodge 70 

Nathl Wade 59 

Benin Perkins 75 

John Baker 59 



N. B. Capt. Collins, Chairman of this meeting of choice has now a 
company of 59 men 

422 in ye whole 481." 

T*he following entry appeared in the records of the Third Provincial 
Congress under date of June 2, 1775. 

"To Colonel Samuel Gerrish. 

A number of gentlemen have presented a petition to this Congress in 
behalf of themselves and the men they have enlisted, praying that Capt. 
Moses Little and Mr. Isaac Smith may be appointed and commissioned 
as two of the field officers over them. Six of the said petitioners are re- 
turned by you as your captains, as appears by your return, and the pe- 
tition has been committed to a committee to hear the petition and report 
to the Congress; and it is, therefore, ordered, that the said Colonel. Samuel 
Gerrish be notified and he is hereby notified to attend the said committee 
at the house of Mr. Learned in Watertown the 3d day of June instant, at 
eight o'clock in the forenoon. 

Read and accepted and Capt. Thatcher was desired to carry this re- 
solve to Colonel Gerrish this evening." 

On the following day this entry was made. 

"The committee on the petition of Jacob Gerrish and others reported 
verbally: agreeably to which report. 

Resolved, That the petition be so far granted, as that the petitioners 
be directed to apply to the committee of safety, for a recommendation to 
this Congress, to commission Capt. Moses Little as colonel of a regiment 
in the Massachusetts army.'' 

In the records of the Committee of Safety under date of June 10. 1775 
we read "About five or six weeks past Mr. Greenleaf applied to this com- 
mittee, desiring that the men raised in and about Newbury might not be 
annexed to Col. Gerrish's Regiment, or any other where it would be dis- 
agreeable to them. He afterward applied to this committee respecting said 
men, and desired that the eight companies enlisted upon orders issued by 
this committee, through Col. Gardner's hand, who have since petitioned 


in favor of Col. Little's taking the command of them, might be put under 
him as colonel of a regiment. We then found that we had given orders for 
as many regiments as would complete the establishment made by this colony, 
and therefore did not give Colonel Little any orders to raise a regiment, 
but promised if any vacancy should happen he should have the preverence. 
We find said companies were early in the field, have done duty ever since, 
and are very well equipped." 

June 13, 1775 Colonel Little, with seven other colonels, "to make a true 
return to the committee on the claims and pretensions of the several gen- 
tlemen claiming to be commissioned as colonels; of the number of captains, 
with their respective companies, do choose to serve under the above named 
gentlemen as colonels; and of the number of effective firearms in each 
company and of the place or places where said companies are: and pain 
of forfeiting all pretentions to a commission as colonel, in case of making 
a false return." 

The report concerning Colonel Little's regiment June 15, 1775, was as 
follows : 

"That the said Little has raised eight companies, according to General 
Ward's return, amounting, inclusive of officers, to the number of 509 men 
who choose to serve under him as their chief colonel; and all the said men 
are armed with good effective firelocks, and 382 of them with good bayonets, 
fitted to their firelocks; and that seven of the said companies are at a camp 
in Cambridge and one company at Cape Ann, by order of the Committee 
of Safety." 

"To the Honorable Provincial Congress of the Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay. 

May it please your honours Agreable to your Resolve of the 13th Instant 
I hereby make a Return of the several Companies hereafter named as returned 
to me. 

Captain Jacob Gerrish, 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 
4 corporals, 1 drummer, 2 fifers, 45 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain Abraham Dodge, 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 
4 corporals, 2 fifers, 59 privates. In Cambridge. 


Captain Ezra Lunt, 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 4 
corporals, 2 drummers, 2 fifers, 45 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain Benjamin Perkins, 1 captain. 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants 
4 corporals, 2 drummers, 2 fifers, 59 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain Nathaniel Wade, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant. 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 
4 corporals, 1 drummer, 1 fifer, 51 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain Nathaniel Warner, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign. 4 ser* 
geants, 4 corporals, 1 fifer, 47 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain John Baker, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant. 1 ensign. 4 sergeants. 4 
corporals, 1 drummer, 2 fifers, 47 privates. In Cambridge. 

Captain James Collins, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants. 
4 corporals, 1 drummer, 1 fifer, 46 privates. In Gloucester by order of the 
Committee of Safety. 

|| Captain Gideon Parker, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 4 sergeant-, 
4 corporals, 1 drummer, 1 fifer, 57 privates. All ready to march from Ips- 
wich by Credible Information. 

\i\ Totals, 9 captains, 13 lieutenants, 9 ensigns, 36 sergeants, 36 corpori^. 
9 drummers, 14 fifers, 456 privates. 

Total number of men 582. 

Moses Little, June 15. 1775."' 

The work performed by this regiment on the 17th of June is shown in 
the following quotation from "Ould Newbury.'' 

"At the Battle of Bunker Hill he (Colonel Little) led three of his com- 
panies across Chariest own Neck, under a severe fire from the British bat- 
teries and ships of war, reached the scene of action before the first cl. - 
of the enemy, and was present throughout the entire engagement. His 
men were posted in different places — a part at the redoubt, and a part at 
the breastwork, and some at the rail fence A fourth company came u] 
the field after the battle began. Forty of the regiment were killed or woun- 

In a list appearing in 4 Force II, 1628, the statement is made that seven 
were killed and 23 wounded. " 

"Officers in Collo. Little's Regiment 

Isaac Smith, Liut. Colo. 
James Collins, Maj'r. 


Jacob Gerrish, Capt. 
Silas Adams, Liut. 
Thomas Brown, Liut. 

Nath'l Warner, Capt. 
John Burnum, Liut. 
Daniel Collins, Liut. 

Nath'll Wade, Capt. 
Joseph Hodgkins, Liut. 
Aaron Parker, Liut. 

Abraham Dodge, Capt. 
Ebenezer Low, Liut. 
James Lord, Liut. 

John Baker, Capt. 
Caleb Lamson, Liut. 
Daniel Dresser, Liut. 

Ezra Lunt, Capt. 

Moses Lunt, Liut. 

Montgomery, 2d Liut. 

Benj'n Perkins, Capt. 
Joseph White more, Liut. 
William Stickney, Liut. 

Gideon Parker, Capt. 
Joseph Eveley, Liut. 
MoseS Trask, Liut. 

Joseph Roby, Capt. 
Shubel Gorham, Liut. 
Enoch Parsons, Liut. 


Timothy Barnard, Capt. 
Paul Lunt, 1st Liut. 
Amos Atkinson, 2d Liut. 

Moses Little, Collo. 
June 25, 1775." 

The following table shows the towns represented in this regiment: 

Captains Colo. Moses Little's Regiment. 

Gideon Parker, Ipswich, Gloucester, Newbury, Cape Ann, Salem. 

Nath'l Warner, Gloucester and Cape Ann. 

Abraham Dodge, Ipswich. 

Joseph Rob}', Cape Ann. 

Benjamin Perkins, Newburyport. 

Jacob Gerrish, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Ipswich, Hollis (X. H.) 
and Boscawan. 

Ezra Lunt, Newburyport. 

Nathaniel Wade, Ipswich, Boston. 

Timothy Barnard, Amesbury, Newbury, Newburyport, Ipswich, Ports- 
mouth (N. H.) York. 

John Baker, Topsfield, Ipswich, Rowley, Beverly. Danvers, Wenham, 

In the records of the Committee of Safety, June 26, 1775, we find the 
following entry; 

"Col. Moses Little, having made a return to this committee of a lieu- 
tenant colonel, major, ten captains and twenty lieutenants, it was recom- 
mended to the Honorable Congress that they be commissioned accordingly." 

In the Third Provincial Congress, June 26, 1775, it was '•Ordered, 
That commissions be delivered to the officers of Col. Little's regiment agree- 
able to a list recommended by the committee of safety/' 

July 3, 1775 twelve small arms were delivered to Colonel Moses Little 
for the use of his regiment. This total value was placed at £26:05:04, 
and the following day four guns were delivered Colonel Little for the use of 
this regiment, valued at ,£9:02:00, and on the fifth of July ten small arms 
valued at ^18:07:04. 


"A Petition of Colonel Moses Little, setting forth that several of hie 
iment have not as yet received their months advance pay, was read, and 
committed to Mr. Greenleaj, Colonel Bowers and Mr. Johnson.'' 

(Massachusetts House of Representatives. Aug. 7, 1775.) 

"Ordered, that Colonel Moses Little, who has received from the Ordnance 
Store, in Cambridge, forty-five Fire Arms, which were procured for Colonel 
Nixon's Regiment, in consequence of a request from the Hun. General L 
do return them to the Committee appointed to receive and dispose of the 
Arms collected from the Several Towns in the Colony. " 

(In Council, August 9, 1775; Read and Concurred.) 

"Abstract of the Muster Roll for the Field and Staff Officers of the Sev- 
enteenth Ridg't of Foot in the Service of the United Colonies, Commanded 
by Coll. Moses Little. 

Men's Names Town Rank Time of Time of 

Enlistment Service 

Moses Little Newbury Coll. May 1 3 mo., 8 d. 

Isaac Smith Ipswich Lt.Coll. May 19 2 mo. IS d. 

James Collins Gloucester Major May 19 2 mo. IS d. 

John Cleaveland Ipswich Chaplain July 1 1 mo. 3 d. 

Stephan Jenkins Newburyport Adjt. May 3 3 mo. 6 d. 

Thos. Hodgkins Ipswich Quar. Master May 3 3 mo. 6 d. 

Elisha Story Maiden Surgeon June 30 1 mo. 4 d. 

Josiah Lord Ipswich Surgeon Mate June 15 1 mo. 19 d. 

Moses Little, Colo." 

This list of service for 1775 was made out in Camp on Prospect Hill. 
March 16, 1776. 

"The Petition of John Story, setting forth: That he was appointed by 
the late Congress, as sub-Commissary under Mr. Pigeon, to Colonel Li:: • 8 
Regiment, that he faithfully attended on the said Regiment, and on Mr. 
Pigeon, from day to day, in order to discharge the trust committed to him, 
from the middle of June to the 1st of August, as appears by the annexed 
account and certificate, for which he received no allowance. He there- 
fore prays your Honours would be pleased to order that he be paid the 
amount of his account for his trouble, and such a sum for his expense your 
honours may think proper. 


Resolved, That there be allowed and paid out of the public Treasury 
of this Colony, to the said John Story, the sum of five Pounds five shilli 
in full of his Account for serving as sub-Commissary to Colonel Litl 
Regiment." (Mass. Council, April 10, 177G.) 

This regiment was located at Prospect Hill through the remainder of 
the year. 

The following shows the strength of the regiment during the different 
months of the year: 

Com. Off. Staff- Non. Co. Rank&File Total 

June 9, 1775 





July 1775 






August 18, 1775 






Sept. 23, 1775 






Oct. 17, 1775 






Nov. 18, 1775 






Dec. 30, 1775 






*Field Officers not included 

tlncluding Corporals, drummers and fifers 

♦Including sergeants, fifers and drummers. 

Fourteen of the officers of this regiment had seen service in the French 
war, four of whom held the rank of captain, two were ensigns and one was 

The officers of this regiment attained rank in the Revolution as follows: 
1 brigadier general, 3 colonel, 2 lieut. colonel, 2 major, 12 captain, 10 first 
lieutenant, 6 second lieutenant, 2 surgeon, and 1 chaplain. 

COLONEL MOSES LITTLE of Newbury, son of Moses and Sarah 
(Jaques) Little, was born in Newbury, May 8, 1724. In 174S he built a 
house which is still standing, a picture of which is shown in Currier's "Ould 
Newbury," opposite page 541. July 13, 1757 he was a member of Major 
Joseph Coffin's Train band, 3rd Company of Newbury. In February 1702 
he was Captain of the 5th Newbury Company in Colonel Joseph Genrish's 


2nd Essex County Regiment. He was a delegate to the Essex County Con- 
vention held in Ipswich on the 6th and 7th day of September, 1774, one of the 
four representatives of the town of Newbury. On the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a company of Minute Men serving 
five days. A petition dated Cambridge, May 27, 1775. signed by Jacob 
Gerrish and six other captains, stated that they had chosen Moses Little 
as Colonel and Isaac Smith as Lieutenant Colonel, and the recommenda- 
tion was made that they be commissioned. In a muster roll made up in 
August, the date May 1st, was given as'the one on which he was engaged. 
July 2d, he was appointed officer of the day, and again July 15th. During 
1776 he served as Colonel of the 12th Regiment of the Continental Army- 
He went with the army to New York, and was at the Battle of Long Island. 
He held command at Fort Green, and was in the Battle of Harlem Heights. 
During the winter of 1776-7 he was in command of a regiment in the cam- 
paign of Peakskill, but in the following spring was forced to return home 
on account of illness. June 10, 1777 he was commissioned Brigadier Gen- 
eral and his name appears in a list of officers appointed to command forces 
to go on an expedition to St. John, N. S. (now N. B.) 
The following letter is preserved in the archives: 

"Boston, June, 1777 
I this morning ree'd your fav. acquainting me with the Honor done me 
by the General Assembly of this State in appointing me to the Command 
of the Forces destined for Xova Scotia. I feel myself very sensibly affected 
by this mark of t'heir esteem & am extremely sorry that the broken Stat 
of my own health occasioned by the severe Services of the last Campaign 
& the peculiar Situation of my Family at this time, oblige me to decline the 
honourable appointment. With my best Wishes for the Success of this Ex- 
pedition, & my warmest acknowledgment to the honourable Court, 

• I am, Sir 

Yr. mo. hum. etc. 
In Council June i9, 1777. . Moses Little. 

Read and sent down. Jno. Avery, 

Dept. Secy." 


He was for several years surveyor of the King's woods, and acquired 

by grant and purchase large tracts of land in Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire. He owned at one time a large part of what is now Androscoggin Coun- 
ty in Maine, and also owned a large amount of land in Newbury. He served 
as representative to the General Court. He had a shock in 1784, but 
he lived until May 27, 1798. The sword he used at Bunker Hill and his 
commission in the Continental Army are preserved in his old home on Tur- 
key Hill. 

of Joseph and Johanna Smith. He was baptised in that town, May 7. 1721. 
From September 9, 1755 to January 1756 he was Captain of a Company 
in Colonel Plaisted's Regiment on a Crown Point expedition. June 7, 1765 
he was Captain Lieutenant of Colonel's 1st Ipswich Company, in Colonel 
Samuel Roger's 3rd Essex County Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775 he marched as Major in Lieutenant Colonel Michael Farley's 
3rd Essex County Regiment, serving three days. May 10, 1776 he was 
engaged as Lieutenant-Colonel in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment and he 
served through the year in that rank. January 23, 1776 he was chosen by 
ballot in the House of Representatives to serve as commander of one of the 
six regiments raised to serve before Boston, until April 1, 1776. He received 
his commission May 13, 1776. In June 1776 he was chosen to command a 
regiment for service at New York. He died in Ipswich November 29, 1799 
aged 78 years "in May." 

MAJOR JAMES COLLINS of Gloucester was the son of Ebenezer Col- 
lins and was born in that town November 26, 1724. He lived on the family 
estate on Sandy Bay Road. It is said that he commanded a ship before the 
Revolution. May 19, 1776 he was commissioned Major in Colonel M< 9 - 
Little's regiment and he served through the year under that commander. 
During 1776 he was Major in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment. Con- 
tinental Army. April 24, 1777 he was chosen Colonel of the 6th Essex Coun- 
ty Regiment, and his name appears as Colonel of the same regiment in Brig- 



gadier General Jonathan Titcomb's Brigade in a return of officers dated July 
5, 1779. Babson in his History of Gloucester states that he was the "Cap- 
tain James Collins" who commanded a privateer of eighteen guns, and cap- 
tured on a cruise, a ship called "Lady Gage." He also states that upon 
his return home he was offered command of a privateer ship "Cumberland." 
This w T as in 1777. Babson further states that he probably sailed in this 
ship in 1778 and that neither ship or crew were ever heard from. The wives 
of forty young men of Portland "The Flower of Portland," being made 
.widows. In as much as we have the records as above given, showing that 
he commanded the 6th Essex County Regiment in 1777 and 1779, it would 
seem that the shipmaster of the same name must have been a different man. 
In the "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution" 
the entire military record above given is credited to one man of this name, 
while the naval record is given separately. 

ADJUTANT STEPHEN JENKINS of Newburyport was the son of 
William and Martha Jenkins and was baptized in that town May 20, 1753. 
His father was vestryman of St. Paul's ten years earlier. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Third Lieutenant in Captain Moses 
Noweli's Company May 3, 1775 he became Adjutant of Colonel Moses 
Little's Regiment, and he held that rank under that officer through the year. 
During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, 
Continental Army. From October 14th to November 30, 1777, he was 
Captain in Colonel Samuel Johnson's 4th Essex County Regiment. May 
8, 1778 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Thomas Poor's Regiment, 
and he served in that regiment up the Hudson until February IS. 177 
October 18, 1779 he was commissioned Captain as shown by a "list of officers 
to command men detached from militia to reinforce the Continental Army." 
He served until November 22nd of that year. 

of Stephen and Elizabeth (Harris) Hodgkins. He was born in that town 
February 15, 1746. He was probably one of the three men of that name who 



marched in the ranks from Ipswich on the Lexington alarm of April 
10, 1775. May 3rd of that year he was engaged as Quartermaster in Colonel 
Moses Little's Regiment and served through the year. He was probably the 
man of that name of Ipswich who was engaged July 10, 177S as First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain John Robinson's Company, ''Captain" William Tar:.' 
Regiment, serving 4 months, 25 days in Rhode Island. He died in Ipswich. 
June 11, 1794, aged 50 years. 

CHAPLAIN JOHN CLEAVELAND of Ipswich was the son of Josiafa 
and Abigail (Paine) Cleaveland. He was born in Canterbury, Ct., April 
11, 1722, and became a distinguished divine. He entered Yale College 
in 1741 and his degree was granted him later "as of the class of 1745.*' Hr 
was ordained pastor of a new church in Ipswich, February 25. 1747. He 
was Chaplain in Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment in General James 
Abercrombie's expedition in the French and Indian War and was at Fort 
Edward, Louisburg, etc. July 1, 1775 he became Chaplain in Colonel Moses 
Little's 17th Regiment, Army United Colonies and he served through the 
year. January 23, 1776 he was chosen Chaplain in Colonel Isaac Smith's 
Essex County Regiment raised to serve before Boston until April 1st of that 
year. He had "blue eyes, florid complexion, was 6 feet tall, his voice was heavy 
and of great compass." Reverend James Emmons said of him that he was 
"a pattern of piety and an ornament to the Christian and clerical profession." 
He was for fifty-two years pastor of the church of Chebacco. He died in 
Ipswich, April 22, 1799, aged 77 years. 

SURGEON ELISHA STORY of Maiden was the son of William and 
(Elizabeth Marion) Story. He was born in Boston, December 3. 174o. and 
received his instructions in the Boston Latin School, under the renowned 
Master Lovell. He was a sturdy Whig and Republican and one of the squad 
of the "Sons of Liberty" who destroyed the tea in Boston Harbor. June 
30, 1775 he was engaged as Surgeon in Colonel Moses Little's 17th R gi- 
ment, Army United Colonies, and he served through the year in this organ- 


ization. During 1776 he was Surgeon in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Reg- 
ment in the Continental Army. After his military service he was sent by 
the authorities at Boston to the town of Marblehead, the request 
having been sent from that town that a physician well acquainted with small- 
pox be sent to them to combat the extensive epidemic. The certificate 
which he carried with him showed that he had served two years with Dr. 
Mathe, a physician of distinction in Connecticut, and four years longer 
with Dr. John Sprague of Boston. After the disease had subsided Dr. Story 
remained at Marblehead in response to the urgent request of the people. 
Judge Story described the Doctor's personal appearance as follows: "He 
had been a handsome man in his youth, with blue eyes of singular vivacity, 
eye-brows regularly aslant, a fine nose, and an expressive mouth; he poss - 
sed great blandness of manners, approaching to elegance. Not a man of 
genius but of plain practical sense and a keen insight of the deeds of his fel- 
low men: he made but a modest pretention to learning. He was very effi- 
cient and successful in his practice." He died in Marblehead August 22, 1S0G. 
His portrait appears as frontispiece in the October 1914 number of the 
Essex Institute Historical Collections. 

SURGEON'S MATE JOSIAH LORD of Ipswich was engaged to serve 
in that rank in this regiment June 15, 1775, and he served through the year. 
In a list of officers in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental 
Army, his name appears as Surgeons' Mate in that regiment. (5 Force 
III, p. 541-2.) February 14, 1776 he was chosen Surgeon of Colonel Isaac 
Smith's Regiment, and served before Boston until April 1, 1770. He died 
suddenly in Ipswich May 12, 1794, aged 43 years. 

COMMISSARY JOHN STORY was the son of William and Joanna 
(Appleton) Story and half brother of Dr. Elisha. In a petition addressed 
to the council, signed by William Story of Ipswich, it was stated "that said 
John Story, 'his son, had been appointed in 1775 by the Provincial Con- 
gress of Massachusetts, Commissary to Colonel Little's Regiment and had 



attended 'day to day' upon the Commissary of the Colony, waiting for par- 
ticular directions: that he had later rendered an account to the General 
Court for his service and a resolve making an allowance therefore had been 
passed by the House of Representatives but had not been concurred in by 
the Council; and requesting that the last named party would be pleased 
to concur with the Honorable House and make an allowance as compen- 
sation for said John Story, who had engaged in the Continental Service, 
and proceeded to New York after the passage of the Resolve above referred 
to; warrant allowed in Council May 9, 1776." ''He joined the ordnance 
department as conductor of military stores in March 1770. In Septem- 
ber 1776 he was appointed pay master of Colonel Hitchcock's 11th Regiment. 
June 1, 1777, he became Brigade Quarter Master under General G lover 
and four months later Deputy Quarter Master General with the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, under General Nathaniel Greene. He held that office until 
November 1780 after which he served in the Quarter Master General's de- 
partment. In September 1781 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to General 
Lord Sterling and held that position until his commander's death in 17^2. 
He was much respected and beloved." He was a member of the Mass- 
achusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

CAPTAIN JOHN BAKER of Topsfield, son of Captain Thomas and 
Sarah (Wade) Baker, was born in Topsfield, November 23, 1733. He was 
a commissioned officer in the French and Indian War, but owing to the 
jdentity of names it is impossible to definitely give his record. April 24, 
1775 he became Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment and he served 
through the year, his age at that time being stated as forty-one. Dui g 
177G he was a Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment. Continen- 
tal Army. He died in 1815, aged nearly eighty-two years, and in the Vital 
Kecords of Topsfield the statement is made that lie "served and was com- 
missioned in the French War which commenced in 1755 and commanded 
a company in 1775 and 1776 in the Revolutionary War." 


CAPTAIN TIMOTHY BARNARD of Amesbury was the son of Timothy 
and Tabathy Barnard. He was born in that town March 8, 1741. May 
25, 1757 he was a private in the 1st Amesbury Company under Captain 
George Worthen. In the following year he was a member of Captain Sam- 
uel George's Company, Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment. April 10, 
1759 he was Ensign in Colonel Joseph Gerrish's Regiment on an expedi- 
tion for the invasion of Canada. From November 2, 1759 to December 
7, 1760 he was Ensign in Captain Samuel George's Company. Colonel Jon- 
athan Bagley's Regiment at Louisburg. He served as Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Henry Young Brown's Company from March 4th to November 23 
1762. July 11, 1771, he was Captain in the North Division of the 2nd Reg- 
iment of Militia in Essex County, under Colonel Jonathan Bagley. April 
19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Company on the Lexington alarm from 
East Parish, Amesbury, and five days later became Captain of a Company 
in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, serving through the year, his age being 
given as thirty-five years. Captain Timothy Barnard died in Amesbury 
August 13, 1797, aged 57 years. 

CAPTAIN ABRAHAM DODGE of Ipswich, son of William and Re- 
becca Dodge, was born in that town August 17, 1740. From April 13th 
r to November 20, 1758 he was a private in Captain Andrew Fuller's Company. 
Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment, serving at Lake George. He served 
as Second Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Dodge's Company, on the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Captain 
in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he served through the year. Jan- 
uary 1, 1776 he became Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, 
Continental Army. "Colonel" Abraham Dodge died in Ipswich June 16, 
1786, aged 46 years. 

CAPTAIN JACOB GERRISH of Newbury, son of Colonel Joseph and 
Catherine Gerrish, was baptized in Byfield, February 11, 1739. (,Born 
February 9, 1738 [9]). He was a private in the 2nd Company oi Militia of 


Newbury, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel "Josh" Gerrish (year not 
given, probably 1757). On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he march- 
ed as Captain of a company from Newbury. Five days later he was en- 
gaged as Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he served through 
the year. During 1776 he was Captain of a company in Colonel M 
Little's 12th Regiment, Continental Arm}-. During this year he was ac- 
cused of "misbehavior in the presence of enemy" and was tried by court- 
martial, but the charge was pronounced "entirely groundless'' and General 
Washington approved the finding. Elwell in his "History of Byfield" states 
that he was at Bunker Hill, White Plains, Princeton, Trenton, command- 
ing the left wing in the last named battle. In a return dated November 
25, 1777, his name appears as Colonel of a Regiment of Guards, and this 
same rank is shown in muster rolls dated January 22, 177S, and in still lat- 
er ones in which his date of discharge is given as December 12, 177S. Ap- 
ril 23, 1779 he w T as chosen by ballot in the House of Representatives. Col- 
onel of a Light Infantry Regiment, to be raised for the defense of Xew Eng- 
land. October 18, 1779 he was commissioned Colonel of a Regiment de- 
tached from the militia of Suffolk and Essex Counties to reinforce the Con- 
tinental Army. This service continued until his discharge. November 
22, 1779. He died in Newbury, February 18, 1817, ''almost 78." 

CAPTAIN EZRA LUNT of Newburyport was the son of Matthew 
and Jane (Moody) Lunt. He was born in Newburyport, April 10. 1743. 
In May 1774 he started the stage coach line from Newburyport to Boston. 
leaving Newburyport Mondays and returning on Thursdays. He sold out 
this route the following 3 r ear, and May 2, 1775 became Captain in Colonel 
Moses Little's Regiment, serving through the year. During the 1776 he 
was a Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental Army. 
January 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Henry Jackson's loth Reg- 
iment, Massachusetts Line, and served in that organization until April 9. 
1779. At this date several regiments were incorporated into one and lie 
appears in a list of the supernumerary officers. A warrant dated January 29, 


17S1 shows that he held the rank of Major, serving as "Issuing Commiss 
of small stores." In May of that year he was called "State Clothier." In 
the history of the Lunt family it is stated that he commanded a company in 
Shay's Rebellion and served for several months in the Western part of the 
state. After the war he had an inn holder's license. In 1789 he removed 
to Ohio, and died in 1803 The family historian states that he was 
first man in Newburyport to volunteer for service at the breaking out of 
the Revolution." 

CAPTAIN GIDEON PARKER of Ipswich served as a private in ( - 
onel Thomas Berry's Regiment in October 1755. Later in that year he 
an Ensign in Captain Isaac Smith's Company,. Colonel Icabod PIai- T - l's 
Regiment. From February ISth to December 22. 175G he was a Captain 
in Colonel Ichabod Crane's Regiment at Fort William Henry. In 175S he 
was Captain in Colonel Nichol's Regiment, and from May 9th to Novem- 
ber 14th. 1759 commanded a company on an expedition to Quebec. He 
was continuously in service in command of a company from April IS. 1701 
to December 20, 1762, the latter part of this record being endorsed by I. 
tenant Colonel Jotham Gay. In an account dated March 10. 1763 a bill 
was rendered for travel "on from Halifax." He was probably the man of 
that name who served as a private in Captain Daniel Roger's Company 
which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 177") 
he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and - - 
ved through the year. January 1, 177G he became a Captain in Col 
Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental Army. He died in Ipswich, 
February 10, 1789. 

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN PERKINS of Newburyport was the son of 
Matthew and Anna (Greenleaf) Perkins. He was born December S. 
1749. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Moses NowelFs Company, and on March 9th was engaged 
as Captain in Colonel Little's Regiment, serving through the year. In a 


Company return dated October 1775 his age is given at twenty-six. Dur- 
ing 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Con- 
tinental Army He died in Newbury, March 9, 1707. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH ROBY of Gloucester was engaged May 29, 1775 
to serve as Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he held that 
rank through the year. In a return dated October 1775 his age is gi 
as twenty-four years. No further record of service has been found. 

CAPTAIN NATHANIEL WADE of Ipswich was the son of Timothy 
and Ruth (Woodberry) Wade. He was born in Ipswich February 27. 1750. 
On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he commanded a company of 
Minute 'Men, which marched to Mystic, and on April 20th was ordere 
Salem, and on the 21st to, Ipswich, from thence to headquarters at Cam- 
bridge. May 10, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Little's R g- 
iment. He was present at the battle of Bunker Hill, and was among those 
who lost articles in that engagement. He served through the year in I 
regiment, and during 177G was Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Reg- 
iment, Continental Army. He was president of a Court-martial held at 
Philip's Manor, according to a statement dated Chatham, February 4. 1777. 
May 4, 1777 he was chosen Major in Colonel Danforth Keyes's Regiment. 
raised for the defense of Boston Harbor. July 23rd of that year he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. February 27, 177S he was chosen 
Colonel of a regiment formerly commanded by Colonel Keyes, raised 
for service in Rhode Island'. The regiment "numbered S37 rank and file." 
He served until his discharge. January 4, 1779. June 4, 17S0 he was ch - n 
Muster Master for Essex County. July 6, 17S0 he was commissioned Col- 
onel, his name appearing in a list of officers detached from the Essex County 
Brigade to reinforce the Continental Army for three months. His service 
expired Oct. 10, 1780. November 27th of that year he was again chosen 
Muster Master for Essex County. In 1786 he commanded a regiment 
against the insurgents under Shays. He was for many years Colonel of a reg- 

V 698984 


iment in Middle Essex. He was County Treasurer for a long time, and repre- 
sentative from 1795 to 1816, inclusive. When General Lafayette was in- 
troduced to him in 1824 he is said to have clasped his hand and exclaimed 
"MydearSir,Iamrejoicedtoseeyou. It was just such a stormy night when 
I met you in Rhode Island." Felt in his history of Ipswich states that 
while "he lived, his benevolent manners and actions secured him high and 
extensive esteem." He died in Ipswich, October 26, 1S28, aged 77. 

CAPTAIN NATHANIEL WARNER of Gloucester., was the son of 
Philomen and Mary (Prince) Warner. He was born about 1744. May 2. 
1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment and 
served under that officer through the year. January 1, 1776 he was ap- 
pointed Captain in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental 
Army. April 25th, 1777 he was chosen Captain of a Company of matros- 
ses, to be stationed at Gloucester. March 24, 1778 he was commissioned 
Captain of a Sea-Coast Company at Gloucester. January 29, 1779 his 
appointment as Commander of the Sea-coast Company at Gloucester 
was again ordered in Council. Babson, in his "History of Gloucester" 
states that "after the retreat from Long Island he left the Army. as he had 

not received promotion as he expected he was a very brave officer; 

and might have attained distinction if he had not allowed his anger to over- 
come his patriotism." He died in February 1812, aged 6S. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SILAS ADAMS of Newbury, son of Robert. 
Junior and Anne (Jaques) Adams, was born in Newbury, February 16. 1741-2. 
He was a cordwainer by trade. On the Lexington alarm of April 10. 1775 
he marched to Cambridge as First Lieutenant in Captain Jacob G.'rrish's 
Company. Five days later he enlisted in the same rank under Captain 
Jacob Gerrish in Moses Little's Regiment and served through the year under 
those officers. His name also appears in the same rank under the same Cap- 
tain in a list of officers in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental 
Army, in 1776. He died in Newbury, November 15, 1SJ0, in his 59th year. 


FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN BURNHAM of Ipswich, son of Samuel 
arid Martha (Story) Burnham, was born in Ipswich December 10, 1749. 
He was a shoemaker in Gloucester during the early part of his life. May 
2, 1775 he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Warner's Com- 
pany, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment. He received his commission, June 
27, 1775. His age, on a return made in October of that year was given as 
25 years. He served through the year under the above named officers 
and January 1, 1776 was commissioned in the same rank in Colonel 
Moses Little's 12th Continental Reg't. He was in the Battle of Long Island 
and served in the campaign following in New Jersey. He was in the Battle 
of Trenton in the capture of the Hessians. January 1, 1777 he was commis- 
sioned Captain in Colonel Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Line. He went to Gloucester and raised a company and was ordered 
to lead it to the Northern Army "up the Hudson." He was in all the ac- 
tions through to the surrender of Burgoyne and during the following winter 
was with his regiment at Valley Forge. In 1779 he was in the Battle of 
Monmouth and at the storming of Stony Point. In 1780 he served first un- 
der Lafayette and then under General Greene, and was at the Seige of York- 
town in 1781. In 1782 he was with his regiment up the Hudson, and his 
Company, the Company of Light Infantry of the 8th Massachusetts 
Regiment, attained such proficiency that the General's orders contained 
the following: — "The Commander-in-chief (General Washington) did not 
think he ever saw a company under arms make a more soldier-like and 
military appearance than did the Light Infantry Company of the 8th Mass- 
achusetts Regiment." Colonel Brooks said that he was one of the best 
disciplinarians and one of the most gallant officers of the Revolution. He 
wrote of himself the following: — "On the ninth of January 17S3 after 
having commanded this beautiful company six years and been with them 
in every action I was commissioned Major." He served until June 12. 
17S3. He was appointed Major of the 2nd United States Infantry on March 
4, 1791 and resigned his commission the 29th of December following. 
He went to Marietta, Ohio in 1788, going in command of a company oi six- 


ty men to protect the settlers from the Indians He moved forward several 
months in advance of the emigrants. He was one of the original members of the 
Society of the Cincinnati. He was offered the place of Governor of om 
the territories and was appointed Collector of Port of Gloucester, bul 
clined both. He received a pension of $500 a year from the Government. 
In 1798 he was dismissed to the church at Derry, N. H., and in 1810 
chosen Deacon. He died at Derry, N. H., June 8, 1843, aged 94. He 
a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 


son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Parsons) Evelith. He was born in Glo'i • - 
ter about 1741. From April 24th to November 14, 1759, lie was a private 
in Captain Nathaniel Bayley's (Gloucester) Company, Colonel Ichabod 
Plaisted's Regiment. June 27, 1775 he was commissioned Lieutenant in 
Captain Gideon Parker's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment. Ib- 
died in Gloucester June 30, 1806, aged 05. 

gaged May 29, 1775 as First Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Roby's Company, 
Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and served through the year, according 
to a return made in October. April 15,1776 he became Second Lieutenant 
in Captain Albert Chapman's Company, Colonel Samuel Elmore's Connect- 
icut State Regiment, and on the 2oth of July of that year he was promoted 
to the rank of First Lieutenant. He served to April 1777. A man of that 
name was living in Weston, Fairfield County, Ct., in 1790. All of the 
above services are credited by Heitman in his ''Historical Register oi the 
Continental Army," to one man. The author, however, thinks it pro': 
that the Lieutenant Shubael Gorham connected with the Connecticut R g- 
iment was the man of that name who was a Sergeant in Captain Icabod 
Doolittle's Company, Colonel David Waterbury's 5th Connecticut Reg- 
iment, May 29, 1775, and who reentered service in that regiment Novem- 
ber 17th of that year. .June 12, 1780 a commission was ordered in the Mass- 


achusetts Council to Captain Shubael Gorham as commander of the schooner 
"King Hendriek," privateer. In all probability this record belonged to 

the subject of this sketch, who served in Colonel Little's Regiment. 

Hodgkins, Senior, was baptized August 2S, 1743. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as First Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel 
Wade's Company of Minute Men, and on May 10, 1775 enlisted in the same 
rank under the same Captain in Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and ser- 
ved through the year. January 1, 1776 he was appointed to the same rank 
in Captain Nathaniel Wade's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th Reg- 
iment, Continental Army, and served at least until July 13th and probably 
through the year. January 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Timothy 
Bigelow's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. According to Heitman 
he was "omitted" in July 1779. Felt in his "History of Ipswich" states 
that he succeeded Colonel Wade as commander of the Middle Essex Mil- 
itia Regiment after the Revolution. Hammatt in his "Early Inhabitants 
of Ipswich" calls him "a most remarkable citizen of Ipswich, an officer of 
the Revolution, and an honor to his name." Colonel Joseph Hodgkins 
died in Ipswich, September 25, 1829, aged SG years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT MOSES KENT of Newburyport was the son 
of Richard and Anne (Hale) Kent. He was born in Newbury, September 
12, 1750. May 2, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Timothy Barnard's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment. In a 
list of the officers of this regiment, published in the historical section in the 
first part of this article, .his name appears as First Lieutenant in 
Captain Ezra LumVs Company. He probably served through the year 
in this regiment. January 1, 1776 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in 
Captain Gideon Parker's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment. 
Continental Army. According to Heitman he served through the year. 
He died in Newbury, February 29, 17S6, aged "34 y." 


uel and Sarah (Kimball) Lamson, (See Kimball Genealogy) was born in 
Ipswich in May 1739. From April 22nd to December 2, 1756, he served 
as a private in Captain Stephen Whipple's Company, Colonel Ichabod PlaU- 
ted's Regiment, on an expedition to Crown Point. In this record his age 
is given as seventeen, place of birth Ipswich, and place of residence Wen- 
ham. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant 
in Captain Elisha Whitney's Company of Minute Men, which marched 
from Ipswich Hamlet to Mystic, returning three days later. April 24, 1775 
he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain John Baker's Company. 
Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he served through the year. Dur- 
ing 1776 he held the same rank under the same officers in the 12th Reg- 
iment, Continental Army. A man of this name was living in Gloucester 
in 1790. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EBENEZER LOW of Ipswich was the son of 
David and Susanna (Low) Low. He was baptized in Ipswich October 4, 
1741. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain 
Abraham Dodge's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he ser- 
ved through the year. February 18, 1776 he was engaged as First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Daniel Gidding's Company, Colonel Joseph Foster's Reg- 
iment for service in Gloucester in the sea-coast defense and served until 
his discharge November 18, 1776. His name appeared as Lieutenant on 
the alarm list dated April 30, 1778. He was living in Ipswich in 1790. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PAUL LUNT of Newburyport was the son 
of Cutting and Deborah (Jaques) Lunt. He was born in Newbury March 
30, 1777. On the Lexington alarm of April 19,. 1775 he marched as S - 
jeant in Captain Moses Nowell's Company. May 2. 1775 he was engaged 
as First Lieutenant in Captain Ezra Lunt's Company, and lie served through 
the year. In a list of officers of Colonel Jonathan Titcomb's 2nd Ess I 
County Regiment, dated April 30, 1776, his name appears as Adjutant. 



and he was reported commissioned May 8, 1776. He died in Newbury 
November 26, 1824, aged 77 years. 

born about 1742. May 9, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Benjamin Perkins's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment He 
was dangeroush- wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. The 
hospital being filled with sick and wounded, he was sent to Newburyport, 
where he remained under treatment until October 8, 1775. June 20, 1770 
he was chosen by ballot in the House of Representatives, Second Lieutenant 
of Captain Edward Wigglesworth's Company of matrosses to be stationed 
at Newburyport, and his commission was dated the same day. July 0, 
1776 he w r as engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Moses Nowell's Com- 
pany of Sea-coast men stationed at Plum Island, near Newburyport. He 
served at least three months. "Colonel" Joseph Whittemore died in New- 
buryport June 25, 1821, aged 79 years. 

Ichabod and Priscilla (Bayley) Atkinson, was born in that town March 20, 
1754. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as private 
in Captain Moses Little's Company, serving five days. May 1, 1775 he 
enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain Jacob Gemsh's Company, Col- 
onel Moses Little's Regiment. January 1, 1775 he became Second Lieu- 
tenant, in Captain Jacob Gerrish's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th 
Regiment, Continental Army. Later in the year he was promoted to the 
rank of First Lieutenant of the same company. A receipt for wages for four 
and a half month's service at Rhode Island, under Major William Rogi rs, 
dated January 25, 1779 is the only record we have of his later service. He 
was a hatter and lived in Newbury. He died in Newbury November 11, 1817. 

son of Lieutenant Francis and Mercy (Lowell) Brown. He was bora in 
Newbury March 10, 174G. He was probably the man who served as En- 


sign in Captain Jacob Dodge's Wenham Company, Colonel Samuel Rog 
Second Essex County Regiment, June 7, 17C5. May 2, 1775 he became 
First Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Barnard's Company, and he served 
through the year. January 1, 1776 he was appointed First Lieutenant in 
Captain Nathaniel Wade's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regi- 
ment, Continental Army. Later in the year, he became Captain in Col- 
onel Aaron Willard's Regiment which marched to Tieonderoga. A pay 
abstract for mileage from Newburyport to Charlestown. No. 4, and from 
Fort Edward to Newbury, was sworn to January 23, 1777. He lived in 
Newbury until 1784 when he removed to Newburyport and became a mer- 
chant. He died in Newburyport, June 26, 1803, aged 5S year-. 

born about 1739. Babson states that he was a grandson of Ezekiel Col- 
lins. Daniel Collins, Junior, served in Captain Nathaniel Bayley's Glou- 
cester Company from May 4th to November 14, 1759. He was a block- 
maker by trade. May 2, 1775 he enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Nathaniel Warner's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment and 
served through the year. During 1776 he held the same rank in Captain 
Nathaniel Warner's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment. Con- 
tinental Army. Babson in his "History of Gloucester'' states that he later 
became a Colonel of the Militia and that he died in 1810, aged 71 years. 

Daniel) was a resident of Ipswich in 1760. February 25th oi that year 
he enlisted for service in the French War, and in this record lie was called 
Daniel Dresser, "Junior," and his birthplace given as Boxford. April 24. 
1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain John Baker's Company. 
Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he served through the year. In a 
return made out October of that year, his age was given as 35 years. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES LORD of Ipswich, son of James. 
Junior, and Mary (Fuller) Lord, was born in Ipswich March 26, 173S. In 


August 1757 he marched in Captain Thomas Dennis's Company, Colonel 
Daniel Appletons Regiment for the relief of Fort William Henry. In 
record of this service he was reported as belonging to the late Colonel Berry's 
Company. From April oth to October 29, 175S, he was in Captain Thomas 
Poor's Compam-, Colonel Ebenezer Nichol's Regiment. April 6, 1750 at 
the age of twenty-one he enlisted in service for the invasion of Canada. From 
January 1st to December 15, 1760 he was a private in Captain Israel Davis's 
Company, - Colonel Bagley's Regiment, for service at Louisburg. April 
24, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Abraham Dodge's 
Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and served through the year. 
During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Captain Abraham Dodge's Company. 
Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continental Army. July 20, 177S 
he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Simeon Brown's Company. 
Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment, and he served until January 1, 1770. 
Heitman, in his "Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental Army'' 
states that he died February 13, 1830. 

buryport was the son of Nathaniel and Sarah Montgomery. He was born 
in Newbury April 30, 1751. He served as Corporal in Captain Mo-es Nov- 
ell's Company on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 2, 1775 he 
became Second Lieutenant in Captain Ezra Lunt's Company, Colonel M - a 
Little's Regiment and he served through the year. In one company return 
he is called Ensign. During 1776 he served as Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Ezra Lunt's Companj', Colonel Little's 12th Regiment, Continental Army. 

tain Nathaniel Wade's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, accord- 
ing to a return dated June 26, 1775. 

born about 1735. He served as Corporal in Captain Henry Ingalls's Com- 
pany from September 25th to December 14, 1775, in an expedition to Crown 


Point. May 29, 1775 he was engaged to serve as Second Lieutenant in 
Captain Joseph Roby's Company, Colonel Moses Little's Regiment, and he 
served through the year. In a return dated October 1775, his age was giv- 
en as forty years. January 1, 1776 he was appointed Second Lieutenant 
in Captain Abraham Dodge's Company, Colonel Moses Little's 12th Reg- 
iment, Continental Army, and he served probably through the year. April 
25, 1777 he was chosen by ballot in the House of Representatives, Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Warner's Company of mattrosses, sta- 
tioned at Gloucester. In a petition dated Gloucester, October 10, 1777 
signed by said Parsons, he stated that he had "served nearly three years," 
and that his wages were not sufficient to support his family. He asked that 
his resignation be accepted, and such action was taken in Council, Novem- 
ber 27, 1777. He may have been the man of that name who was later cap- 
tured and held a prisoner in Nova Scotia. A certificate dated Boston, 
August 3, 1780, signed by Enoch Parsons and others, returned prisoners, 
showed that they had been kindly treated by the residents of Cape Four- 
chu, Nova Scotia. The name of Waitstill Lewis was particularly mentioned 
as he had conveyed them to Massachusetts without charge. 

so given Newburyport) was born about 1746. He was engaged May 9, 
1775 to hold that rank in Captain Benjamin Perkin's Company, Colonel 
Moses Little's Regiment, and he served through the year. In a return 
dated October of that year, his age is given as 29 years. 

SECOND LEUTENANT MOSES TRASK (no town given) held that 
rank in Captain Gideon Parker's Company, in Colonel Moses Little's Reg- 
iment, according to a return dated June 26, 1775. He served through the ; 

iSritm^m $c (Sammrat 

on lloo^ anb ©tyer ^ubject^ 

Many of the big facts of our every day existence are too momentous 
for ordinary minds to realize in their true value. One of the changes going 
on in our day is the decrease in numerical strength of the old New England 
stock, which is due (contrary to the commonly accepted theory) not so 
largely to decline in fecundity on the part of the native stock as to rapid in- 
crease of immigrant foreign population. The Celt, who came in numbers to 
our shores 75 years ago, has made marvelous progress, and has thoroughly es- 
tablished himself as the leader of practically all the foreign elements. In 
Boston he has complete control of the politics of the city, and in other large 
cities seems to be acquiring control. 

Looked at with the long-ranged vision of the historical philosopher, it 
is possible to see in this change an infusion of new blood, as beneficial to 
America in a few generations as was the admixture of Teutonic, Danish and 
Norman blood in the original English (Angles) stock, but many others be- 
lieve it marks the slow exclusion of a people, the downfall of the New Eng- 
enders, who, like the Romans, drunk with wealth and prosperity, are unable 
to cope with the invading "horde." 

Because of religious feeling the question is discussed but little in the 
open. But recently prominent citizens of the state have delivered some 
plain words in public, which are interesting contributions to the subject of 
the racial change now going on in the New England states. 

Expurgated of some of his expletives which lent nothing in force. Mayor 
Curley of Boston said in part: 

"Before the woman's department of the National Civic Federation in the 
Back Bay, Wednesday afternoon, Mr. JohnF. Moors wailed for an hour the pol- 


itical decadence of the age in Boston; and wept for the grand old days when 
the Hub was a big provincial village, where the dominant element of the day 
dealt in cod fish and rum and there were no reformers to disturb, nor aud- 
itors to annoy, the Anglo-Saxons who preyed on the city as zealously as 
they prayed in their meeting houses. 

"Then came the deluge and the Irish — mere Irish peasants — who landed 
here poor, vigorous and free, to do the work the Anglo-Saxon clods and farm 
laborers had been imported to do a century before by fish and farm corporations. 

Mr. Moors says, "We Anglo-Saxons gave them a refuge here; but socially, 
industrially, racially and religiously the welcome was not of a kind to break 
the mass to individual units." The welcome was certainly not cordial: 
no cool observer would have called it fraternal or Christian; but after cent- 
uries of Anglo-Saxon rule Puritan prejudice and suspicion were but flea 
bites to a hardy, industrious virile race which had letters and learning, cul- 
ture and civilization when the forbears of colonial New England were the 
savage denizens of hyperborean forests. 

"There were no brass bands and civic delegations when the Irish came 
in the forties. And adds Mr. Moors sadly, 'When they became numerical- 
ly supreme they became politically dominant. How absurdly American 
this was, the majority daring to rule the minority; but that is one of the pe- 
culiarities of the American system, so different from the Anglo-Saxon sys- 
tem of the man doffing his hat and pulling his forelock to his masters and bet- 

"These Irish did worse than that. They began the agitation that lib- 
erated the labor serfs of the cotton towns, abolished the 9 o'clock cur:'- v. 
decreased the hours of labor from 84 to 54 hours a week, and kept on dis- 
turbing the incidence and conditions of the Yankee Golden Age so that they 
have made Massachusetts fit for a plain American to live in and abolished 
the feudal lords of industry. The dreadful Irish! 

"Quick-witted people with long memories, they soon learned the Ameri- 
can political game and the value of the ballot; and in the second and third 
generation they dethroned the narrow and stifling dominance of the dwind- 
ling Anglo-Saxon and proved their fitness to rule and administer states 
and municipalities. 

"Naturally Mr. Moors does not appreciate these things, but he seems to 
approve the tricks and traps of a hostile Legislature which forces a non- 
partisan system of government — a body created to destroy partisanship 


wherever the Irish were dominant — power to balk the will of the electorate 
expressed at the polls and to negative the charter adopted by the p'-.jple. 

"A strange and stupid race, the Anglo-Saxon. Beaten in a fai 
up fight be seeks by political chicaner}' and hypocrisy to gain the 

lost in battle; and this temperamental peculiarity he loves to call fair r 

"Like others of his strange breed Mr. Moors worries over the publi 
and their management and results, and he implores the ladies of the Back 
Bay infected with uplift and reform ideas to rally to them and give the 
100,000 children a proper education. The ladies don't know irhat a 
chance they are missing. Can they not hear this army of 100.000 children 
of Ireland, Israel, Italy and other outer lands, calling to be saved from w 
are called the best schools in America, and given a 'proper education', as un- 
derstood by the uplifters of the Back Bay upon the plans laid down by Prexy 

"Nothing is quite so touching as the concern displayed for the public- 
schools b} r those who send their children elsewhere in order to save them 
from the contamination of the lower classes, and fit them for associal 
with our best titled foreigners in the future. 

"Mr Moors probably means well; but he is a voice calling in the wilder- 
ness, a pathetic figure of a perishing people, who seek by dollars and denun- 
ciation to evade the inexorable and inevitable law of the survival of the fittest. 

"The so-called Anglo-Saxon Mr. Moors laments is a negligible citizen: 
he neglects his political duties; he is not a good American; he imagines his 
prejudices are principles, and fails to understand what he calls the decay 
of America is merely his own personal grievances and political inefficiency. 
It has not occurred to him that he is not American, nor is the dwindling prov- 
incial personnel he speaks for the nation. 

"The Puritan has passed; the Anglo-Saxon is a joke: a newer and better 
America is here; colonial Xew England is dead; the 20th century is here. Mr. 
Moors and his kind must keep step with the age or get left behind in the race. 
Let him learn to accept accomplished facts cheerfully: the sap of a new life 
stirring in a nation is a sign of vitality, a promise of growth, strength and en- 
durance hereafter. 

"No country is ever ruined by a virile, intelligent. God-fearing, patriotic 
people like the Irish, and no land was ever saved by little clubs oi female 
faddists, and old gentlemen croaking over imaginary good old days. 

"What Mr. Moors fails to realize is that his peculiar mental and phy- 


sical condition has rendered him unfit to represent modern Boston and that 
the public good and his private views require his prompt retirement from 
all public office He should get down and out of the Finance Com- 
mission voluntarily or otherwise." 

Mr. Moors remarks were not offensive, or even critical, in fact he was 
making an attempt to hold out an olive sprig, but our Celtic friends are show- 
ing that they possess a fine sensitiveness. There is nothing dull or obtuse 
about their appreciation of an insult, hinted or implied. Even an un- 
favorable inference will meet instant resentment, as it did in this case. It 
is perhaps Plebeian and foolish from the point of view of the man looking 
down. But evidence of spirit, warm blood and enthusiasm on the part 
of a race working its way onward and upward. 

The gist of what Mr. Moors said, to arouse Mayor Curley, is contained 
in the following: 

"Boston became a city nearly 100 years ago. ... A generation 
later the potato famine in Ireland drove hither for a refuge thousands of 
suffering people, mostly peasants. The third generation of this famine 
stricken people is now dominant in this city. 

"Their ancestors were united by English oppression and absentee land- 
lordism into a compact mass of antagonism to all things Anglo-Saxon. We 
Anglo-Saxons gave them a refuge here, but socially, racially, industrially 
and religiously the welcome was not of a kind to break the mass into in- 
dividual units. When they became numerically supreme, as in time they, 
did, they became also politically supreme, at our exclusion. 

"The one great need for years has been this, that the different races 
which make up our cosmopolitan city, should not remain distinct and an- 
tagonistic but should work together as in truth, fellow citizens. Prejudice, 
of which we in this room must bear our full share of responsibility, has stood 
in the way. Perhaps in the now famous words of Mr. Lloyd George, 
we are admitting this 'too late'; now that we have become little more than 

Ex-mayor John F. Fitzgerald, with more poise and wiser restraint, made 
pertinent comment, on another part of Mr. Moors's address, as follows: 


''In his speech, John F. Moors remarked that not a rich man's son under 
forty years of age today is taking any important part in the political life 
of the city. He might have gone further and said that there are few of them 
in the constructive business life of the city. As bankers and promoters 
and bond salesmen some of them have achieved a modicum of success, but 
as a class they have been a blot rather than a blessing to the life of the city. 
Their forbears were mostly strong men who entered actively into all the 
walks of life. In politics, business and shipping they were leaders. Their 
names were bywords everywhere in this country and abroad. In those days 
New England furnished the leadership of the nation in most things. Ves- 
sels built here were captained by scions of the old blood hardly twenty-one 
years of age. The country was gridironed with railroads organized in small 
offices in State Street where now inertia exists or the latest golf contest is 
discussed. This element, lacking both brains and energy, themselves 
conspired to hold down the new-comers. 

"Mr. Moors said in another part of his address, "socially, racially, re- 
ligiously and industrially" the new-comers were not welcomed. Is it any 
wonder under such conditions that New York after the war grasped 
the commercial and industrial supremacy away from Boston, and today 
Boston is a joke compared to New York, commercially and industrially?"' 

Louis K. Liggett, the new president of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, a few days later expressed a thought along this same line, in an ad- 
dress to Hyde Park business men, when he said : 

"Boston might advertise, because it has a great deal of money and many 
advantages; but what Boston needs more than advertising is more of the 
old-fashioned Yankee spirit of starting things. Boston is suffering from in- 
herited wealth. That is to say a great deal of its capital is in the hands 
of trustees who could not, perhaps, if they wished to, risk a little money 
on development. Their position is obvious, both from the moral and the 
legal standpoint. New England should have had the automobile business, 
the second largest manufacturing industry in the country. We had the 
machinists, the shops and the capital, but we did not have the men with faith 
in the horseless carriage." 

But the most pronounced contribution to the discussion was made by The 
Boston Daily Globe, owned and controlled by General Charles Henry Taylor 



and his son, which in an editorial leader, headed "Our Fine Old New 
England Stock," boldly attacked the theory that New England blood is 
any better than any other blood. The editorial said in part: 

We talk much about "pure blood" and "unmixed stock" as if their pro- 
duct was nobler in character and finer in deeds. We shudder slightly 
at the word "mongrel" and "half-breed," thinking of some poor negie I 
dog, or some sodden degenerate of an Indian reservation. There is no 
denying our racial pride, no matter what our race may be. There is 
also no denying our fond reverence for pure blood and our antipathy for 
mixed blood, particularly if the mixture contains negro or Chinese corpus- 

It is a very lusty illusion. 

Pure blood is a myth. American blood is certainly a mixture and the 
Anglo-Saxon himself, by his very name, reflects a mixture following the Saxon 
invasion of England. Following the Saxon invasion came the Norman con- 
quest, making the ancestral characteristics of three races flow in British veins, 
not to mention the intermarriages between the English. Scotch and Irish. 
President Wilson calls himself Scotch-Irish. Theodore Roosevelt is Dutch- 

Purity of blood may bring in prize cups and ribbons in the dog and horse 
shows, but pure blood among human beings is no royal road to genius. Bril- 
liance of mind is not bred. It is not produced by refinement of birth. It 
is beyond the control of man. 

Alexander Dumas' grandmother was a Haytian negress. 

Zola's father was half Greek and half Italian. His mother was a French 

Jules Simon was a mixture of German and French. Robespierre's par- 
ents were Irish and French. Patti was a mixture of Sicilian and Roman 
blood. Barclay de Tolly was both Scotch and Russian. John Audubon's 
father was a Frenchman. His mother was a Spanish West Indian 

Copernicus, the founder of modern astronomy, was the son of a Slav 
father and German mother. The great Prince Eugene's father was French 
and his mother Italian. Lafcadio Hearn, that shadowy stylist, sprang 
from an Irish father and a Greek mother. Edvard Grieg, the composer. 
was born of Norwegian-Scotch parentage. Immanuel Kant. greatest 
of modern philosophers, was the son of a Scotch saddler and his German wife. 


Purity of stock in not to be desired in the human race. Historians tell 

us that the flowering of genius in Athens during the ^lory of ancient 
was due to the mixture of races in Attica in previous generations. 

Historians of later periods ascribe the rise of Home to the mixture of 
races as instanced by the rape of the Sabine women, on the Italian peninsu- 
lar; and the fall of Rome to the refusal of the decaying ruling class to al- 
low marriages with barbarians. 

Europe has been a weird mixture of peoples ever since its ascendency, 
following the wild surgings back and forth of the Goths, the Huns and the 
Vandals. Spain reached her greatest height after the Moorish invasion. 
The Germans today are a most complex mixture. The hope of the future- 
greatness of the United States is that the. races will melt into each other and 
breed a versatile people. The old Anglo-Saxon stock should disappear with 
the rest.* a. w. d. 

Judge Francis M. Thompson, whose "Reminiscences of Four Score 
Years" appeared in installments in the Massachusetts Magazine, died at 
his home in Greenfield, January 1st, 1916. The last installment of his rem- 
iniscences appear in the January, 1915, number. We believe them to be 
a valuable contribution to the pioneer days of the Northwestern states. 
He spent but a few years there, but he had remarkably varied experiences, 
being banker, lumberman, storekeeper, miner, member of the first legis- 
lative Council of Montana, and author of the bill creating the Historical 
Society of Montana. Being a member of an exploring party which organized 
in St. Louis in 1862, he made a prospecting trip up the Missouri and Yellow- 
stone Rivers, over the Rocky Mountains, down the Snake and Columbia 
rivers to Portland, and thence to San Francisco by ocean voyage, — a trip 
of over 3000 miles. He acted as secretary of the party, and kept a diary 
of the trip, which formed the basis for his reminiscences. Another ex- 

*For the benefit of those who may have seen the original editorial with its pn . 
that the superintendent of the State School for Feeble Minded had branded t lie "Fine old 
New England stock 7 ' as a breed below standard and asserted that more mental deft 
was found among descendants of old Anglo-Saxon settlers than among immigrants and their 
children, we would say that Dr. Walter E. Fernald, the official referred to. claims thai he 
was misquoted, and denies emphatically that he gave voice to such a statement. But this, 
of course, has no bearing at all on the editorial as quoted here. A. w n. 


ample of the industrious writing habit which seems to be part of a New Eng- 
lander's nature! As one reads the spirited pages of narrative, dealing with 
banking, trade, currency, travel, miners, Indians, outlaws, vigilant com- 
mittees, conversations with Abraham Lincoln, and notorious men of the plain-. 
he cannot but marvel at the fact that such interesting personal history with 
those far away states should emanate from a modest little man who has 
for the past 43 years been performing probate duties for the county, at Green- 
field, first as registrar and then as judge. A brief biography of Judge Thomp- 
son in the January, 1908, issue of the Magazine, gives further data con- 
cerning his life and historical writings. 

The publication of the index of Massachusetts pioneers lately completed 
in our columns calls special attention to the westward movement of the 
population of Massachusetts. It should be borne in mind that about the 
time of the Revolution especially, and for a generation later, there was a 
notable exodus toward the east. 

The District of Maine was then a part of our state and while the coast 
from the New Hampshire line to the mouth of the Kennebec was chiefly 
settled by colonists from the mother country in the 17th century, most of 
the pioneers to the great interior came from the Bay state. The Kenn 
Valley belonged in large part to the so-called Plymouth Company of Massa- 
chusetts whose founders bought it from our Plymouth Colony. That section was 
settled first; apart from some other smaller holdings the rest of the interior 
was included in the state's public lands and parcelled out and sold from time 
to time. A very large proportion of the actual settlers came from old Mass- 
achusetts and even today a traveller in the rural districts (and cities are 
very few and small) is struck by the recurrence of the family names so 
common in our states. 

Genealogy has received considerable attention in Maine: there are very 
good collections at the Maine Genealogical Society in Portland and the Maine 
State Library, Augusta. There is of course, not a little Maine material 


in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register but Maine genealog- 
ical periodicals, whether general or local, seem to have short lives, and their 
indexes are not of a sort to make research easy. One of the best of these 
periodicals was Porter's Bangor Historical Magazine 18S5-94, devoted 
especially to the Eastern Maine. The Bangor Public Library has a card 
index to all the names in this magazine. That Library has also another un- 
usual genealogical tool in a file of the genealogical department of Boston 
Transcript 1893 to date and New York Mail and Express 1893-1904, 
cut up, mounted on cards and fully cross referenced (except that the lat- 
ter part of the Transcript file has not yet been reached in the process;. It 
also mounts and indexes the similar department of the Portland Evening 
Argus beginning 1915. c. a. f. 

Our associate-editor, George Sheldon, of Deerfield, spent his 97th birthday 
with four generations of Sheldons at table with him, on November 31. It 
is 45 years ago now, since he founded the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial 
Association, and his interest in historical matters is as strong and persis- 
tent as ever. Elsewhere we note a reprint of his story of ''The Little Brown 
House on the Albany Road;" a few months ago he contributed a long let- 
ter to the Springfield Republican on his observations of the migratory hab- 
its of rodents; and he is at present preparing an article on Joseph Stebbins, 
which will appear in our next issue. 

Charles A. Flagg, one of our associate editors, who was formerly in the 
department of American history in the Library of Congress, has had many 
honors thrust upon him since he took up his residence in Maine as librarian 
the Bangor Public Library. The Governor has recently placed him on the 
"State Library Commission, he is on the standing committee of the Maine 
Historical Society, and officer of the local historical Society, and President 
of the Maine Library Association. 

. V 



The town or city is fortunate which numbers among its present or form- 
er inhabitants, a man who is willing to write its history When that man 
essays to compile its military annals and combines in himself the accomp- 
lished scholar and experienced soldier, all interested in that town and in 
military history in general have reason to be grateful. In the "Soldiers 
of Oakham/' Doctor Henry Parks Wright has given to us a practically uni 
volume, in that he has not only given a list of the soldiers of that town who 
participated in the three great wars of this nation, but has given excellent 
biographical sketches of all of these men. 

Other writers have prepared lists of the soldiers furnished by towns like 
Lancaster and Danvers and still others like the late Howard K. Sanderson 
in his "Lynn in the Revolution," have written the biographies for men who 
served in the war for Independence, but we will search in vain for another 
book approaching the "Soldiers of Oakham" in completeness and breadth 
of scope. The writer not only gives the military record but the ancestry, 
civil record (before and after the war service), names of the members of his 
immediate family and a full list of authorities under each name. Hi- - 
pecial fitness for the work is shown in the following quotation from the pref- 
ace: "In the preparation of this book I have not only been living ag 
among old friends, but have sometimes seemed to myself to be renei 
acquaintance with men brought back upon the stage from former gener- 
ations. I knew personally the greater part of the soldiers from Oakham in 
the Civil War. One-fourth of them had been my pupils, and a large pro- 
portion had been my playmates and friends. I have seen the greater part 
of the men who were in the War of 1S12. From early childhood I had heard 
much about the soldiers in the Revolutionary War from my grandmother. 
by whom I was brought up, who was the widow of a Revolutionary soldier 
and the daughter of John Crawford, Captain of the Oakham company from 
1783 to 1785. It has been a pleasure to gather, from the records of the 
town and state, the history of the Oakham men who served in the War for 
Independence, but it has been especially gratifying to bring to light in a 
neighboring town a Revolutionary document supposed to have been irrevo- 


cably lost. The fortunate discovery of a pay roll of Captain How'.- com- 
pany for service on the Hudson in the latter part of 1770 gives en 
ment to hope that copies of other supposedly lost muster or pay rolls will 
yet be found." 

It is most earnestly hoped that the laudable example set by this devoted 
friend of Oakham will be followed by others and that similar records of sol- 
diers in other towns will be compiled and preserved for posterity. 

F. A. G. 

"Soldiers of Oakham, Massachusetts, in the Revolutionary War, the War of 
1812 and the Civil War, by Henry Paiks Wright." New Haven, Conn. 

"The Little Brown House on the Albany Road" is a story of a small 
tumbled down dwelling in Deerfield, which has in recent years been re- 
habilitated and occupied as a studio by two young ladies. This house had 
a history full of associations with strong characters of Colonial times, and 
Mr. George Sheldon wrote a "story" about the little brown house in 18 
so full of romance and interest, and so full of interesting personages, like 
Aunt Spiddy, Deacon Hitchcock, and General Hoyt, that it came to the 
notice of Edwin D. Mead, who published it in the New England Magazine 
for September 1898, and a thousand reprints found their way into libraries 
and homes. To meet a demand which still continues this new edition is 
published by the author in artistic light brown board covers. The inter- 
est in the story is increased by illustrations from several very fine photo- 
graphs and original drawings. 



^otc^fD.(nassac^usctt5»Hisforja < Ccncn!oijii-'Biogrft|>l)y 
^blished bythe Salem Press Ca Salem, Mass. US.A. 

®{jp iBnzzzttyxzttU Mngfrzmt 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


Deerfield, Mass Salem, Mass. Salem, Mas3. 


Bangor, Me. Salem, Mass. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 
NO. 2 APRIL, 1916 VOL. IX 

Qhmtents nf tl)t3 3sm? 

Joseph Stebbins ....... George Sheldon . 59 

The Good Old Days .... Raymond D. Fosdick . 73 

Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment Frank A. Gardner, M. D. . 87 
Criticism and Comment- 107 

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Entered as second-class matter, March 13, 1908, at the post-office, at Salem, Mass., under the Act of Congress, 
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By George Sheldon. 

There cannot be too much honor paid to the memory of those who 
set themselves to the work of freeing this colony from the tyrannical grasp 
of Great Britain. They were men of nerve, persistence and faith in their 
cause and in one another. They had the firm belief that they should final- 
ly succeed in their herculean task. 

That the task was herculean is graphically shown in the following cry 
littered in March, 1775. "Are we ready for war? Where are our stores 
—where are our arms — where our soldiers — where our generals — whore 
our money — the sinew r s of War? They are nowhere to be found. In truth. 
we are poor, we are naked, we are defenceless, yet we talk of assuming the 
front of war! of assuming it, too, against a nation, one of the most formi- 
dable in the world; a nation ready and armed at all points; her navies riding 
triumphant on every sea, her armies never marching but to certain victory! 
What is to be the issue of the struggle we are called upon to court? What 
can be the issue, in the comparative circumstances of the two countries, 
but to yield up this country an easy prey to Great Britain." This and 
like eloquent addresses had no effect on the New England rebels of the Rev- 


Decrfield, as a town, was at the forefront of this rebellion. Deerfield was 
not alone, but this sketch of her history is given as an illustration of 
what was going on all around her. 

As early as 1770 the Deerfield rebels had made up their minds for busi- 
ness, and had gradually come into civil power. For ten years previous- 
ly the loyalists had held control of the town, but in 1770 the rebels defied 
the loyalists and King George and elected rebel town officers. 

Prominent among the men of Deerfield who were active in this move- 
ment was my grandfather, Joseph Stebbins. July 28, 1774, when Stebbins 
was twenty-four years old, the spirit of patriotism of the "Sons of Liberty" 
had reached such a height that preparations had been made for setting up 
a tall "Libert}' Pole" upon the village street. Party spirit ran high, and 
little courtesy was shown on either side. There were a few Tories in town. 
and this Pole, which had been brought here too late in the day to be erected, 
was sawed asunder by one of them when darkness could conceal the actor 
who boastingly made record of the act in his diary. This diary is now in 
my possession. 

The next morning the rebels procured another stately tree from the 
forest, and planted it firmly on the Street within six rods of my grandfather's 
house, with a liberty flag floating defiantly therefrom. 

Stebbins was one of those who well knew that proceedings like these 
would call down upon the heads of the rebels the vengeance of one of the 
most powerful nations of the earth, and he early saw the necessity of pre- 
paring to resist force by force. He was one of the leaders in organizing 
and drilling a company of the "Sons of Liberty." The strength of the town 
of Deerfield was behind them as we have already seen. 

Oct. 7, 1774 a town meeting was called and a rebel elected to the Pro- 
vincial Congress. Oct. 17, a new military company "to be under the orders 
of the new Congress" was organized here. Xov. 11, Col. David Field and 
Major David Dickinson were sent to a rebel military field meeting at North- 


Dec. 5, the town voted to direct the selectmen to procure a stock of 
powder and lead. 

A Minute company was formed and might have been seen actively 
drilling with Jonas Locke as Captain and Joseph Stebbins as Lieutenant. 

It so happened that on a day which turned out to be one of tiie i 
eventful in the history of Deerfield — April 20, 1775 — a town meeting was 
held in the schoolhouse, when it was, — "Voted that y e Minute Company. 
so called in this Town (as an Encouragement to their perfecting themselves 
in the Military Art) be allowed by the Town y e following sums, viz.: to 
y c Capt & two Lieuts each two shillings, to y e clerk one shilling & six pence. 
and to the non-commissioned Officers & Privates one shilling each for one- 
half day in a week, until ordered otherwise by y e Selectmen who are here- 
by appointed a Committee to determine how long y e said Company shall 
Draw r y e above mentioned wages." 

It was then provided that the company should receive back pay for 
time spent in exercising, at one-half the above rates. Thus the town 
adopted and backed up all the rebels had done. 

Deerfield had now T a little paid rebel army of its own which had been 
drilling for months and my grandfather was an officer. Bear in mind 
this was more than fourteen months before the Declaration of Indepen- 

The little far away town had this day provided for a contingency which 
had already occurred. Even while the meeting was deliberating men on 
horseback were hurriedly spreading the startling news in every direction 
that the war had begun. The schoolhouse door had scarcely closed when 
the resounding hoof beats of the galloping horse, and the hoarse call "To 
Arms!" of the excited rider were heard on our village green. "Gage has 
fired upon the people! Minute men to the rescue! Xow is the time! Cam- 
bridge the place!" and the twain are off like a meteor. Then there was 
hurrying to and fro and arming in hot haste, and before the hours of the 
day were numbered forty-nine men under Capt. Jonas Locke and Lieut. 
Joseph Stebbins were on their way to the scene of bloodshed to join the 


band of patriots under Gen.- Artemas Ward already gathering and encir- 
cling Gage in its toils. The blood of the colony was at fever heat and ( 
had tapped the first vein at Concord. 

By general consent Gen. Ward had been placed at the head of the move- 
ment against Gage, and had been directed to raise an army of 30,000 men 
for this object. At the outbreak of the Revolution, Ward was one of the 
leading men of [Massachusetts in both civil and military life, and in June, 
1775, the second Continental Congress appointed him first Major-General, 
ranking next to Washington in the American army. 

A letter in my possession gives bits of information, not elsewhere found, 
as to how the Deerfield company fared on the way, and how they were re- 
ceived by Gen. Ward. This letter is singularly devoid of sentiment. There 
is not a word regarding the main cause of the war, and not a hint is found 
concerning the reception they received from the people as they struggled 
along. It is addressed to "Col. Selah Barnard" at Deerfield, and written 
by Isaac Parker, Clerk of the Company. The letter is given in full. 

Waltham April 24 [Monday] 1775 
Sir having an Opportunity to send by the Barror we thought it Best 
to Acquaint you as well as we could of our wellfare, we are safe arrived and 
are took our Quarters at Brewers to night But we are not able to tell whether 
this will be our Quarters long, our Regement is not all arrived, Liut Col 
Williams [Samuel] arrived with his Company Last Saturday night we have 
had rain every day since we set out which made the traveling very wet and 
hard, But our men are in good Spirits and everyBody else we see — we shall 
not need any Provision, for we can Draw our allowance to morrow if we 
please, But we think Best to use our own as long as it Last — tomorrow en- 
listing orders are to be given out to Raise a standing army. Several oi the 
other provinces have Sent and offered to Raise their part, those that enlist 
are to have one Coat and forty shilling a month, it is thought all the Cash 
that can be sent will be much wanted, and we think if it could be obtain 
to send our money now in the Collectors* hand Down — you will Doubt- 

*The "Collectors" were men selected by the rebels for the purpose of collecting the pay of the ret • I 
soldiers. It was feared that the tax collectors might prove to be Tories and refuse to pay toe r<. : - 
The wages of the soldier* were always paid in specie which was collected at stated times by the "i 
and held subject to the orders of the soldiers who were liable to be in the 6eid on pay day. 


less here many false stories which we would not have you pay much R< - 
gard to, they have took SamI Murry, and John Ruggles prisoners who are 
under gard — we should be be very glad to see you if you think Best, as I 
have heard that Col Williams does, please to inform all our friend- of our 
wellfare, Excuse this, as it is Late at night 

I remains in Behalf of the Company your 

Huml Sevt 

Isaac Parker Clerk 

Under this call for enlistment at headquarters, Lieut. Stebbins was 
the first of the Deerfield company to respond. 

It has now been shown that Deerfield was in the front ranks of the 
rebellion, and that Joseph Stebbins was an officer in a military company 
which was zealously drilling before Washington received his commission 
as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Arm}'. 

Many towns, like Deerfield, foresaw the coming struggle and made 
like preparations to meet it. Sunderland, nearby, organized a company 
of Minute men in the fall of 1774, and employed a "deserter" to drill them. 

In Greenfield a company of Minute men were drilling under the direc- 
tion of Capt. Timothy Childs, a veteran of the French War. 

A paper in Memorial Hall signed by Jesse Billings and twenty-nine 
others shows how the matter was arranged in Hatfield before the authority 
was assumed by the Provincial Congress. "We the subscribers apprehend- 
ing the military exercise is specially Requisite at this Day, and altho Capt. 
Allis, Lieut. Partridge and Ens. Dickinson have publicly declared that they 
will not act as military officers under the acts of Parliament in the support 
of the same. But we desire that they should call us together and exercise 
us by themselves or such others as they shall judge likely to teach and in- 
struct us in the military art." 

Worcester County, the home of Artemas Ward, was all on fire. Miss 
Ellen Chase, in her "Beginnings of the Revolution," recites the fact oi seven 
regiments of one thousand men each drilling in local companies twice a week 


in that county, and that the men had taken on the name of Minute men 
from being prepared to answer an alarm call at a minute's notice. At Mar- 
blehead the excitement ran still higher; there the rebels were drilling three 
or four times a week. 

Richard Hemy Lee, a distinguished Virginian statesman, said of the 
rebels at this period, they were "men trained to arms from their infancy." 
Does not the slaughter of British officers on Bunker Hill bear testimony 
to the truth of these words? 

Instances might be multiplied but enough has been said to illustrate 
the spirit and the practice of these indomitable rebels. 

I have dwelt at more length upon this subject of the early and earnest 
preparation for war by the patriots to show that the editor of the New Re- 
public was very wide indeed of the mark when he recently published the 
following statement: — 

"What, as a matter of, fact, were the minute-men of the Revolution? 
The}' were citizens-at-large whom the Provincial congresses and the 
Committees of Safety of 1774 instructed to keep their powder-horns filled' 
and hold themselves in readiness to shoot Britishers. They had had no 
military drill, and no practice except in shooting Indians and small game. 
They went down to defeat after defeat, they were chronically under-sup- 
plied with ammunition, they were hardly more than an armed rabble." 
To be sure the rebels were forced from Bunker Hill by G age's swarm of 
Regulars and shortage of powder but, in effect, this action was equivalent 
to a victory. Gage had little stomach for another encounter with that 
sort of a "rabble," and how soon the British Regulars were driven clear 
of all Boston land and water! 

We left Joseph Stcbbins while serving as lieutenant in Captain Locke's 
company on the Lexington alarm, Apr. 20, 1775. This company arrived 
at headquarters on Monday, Apr. 24, and was at once broken up. Gen. \\ ard 
evidently preferring to use this new accession of force as material tor fill- 
ing the ranks of his new army, rather than as a new organization to be pro- 
vided for. The next day Gen. Ward issued a call for volunteers to enlist 




H . 

* 3m5 

Ban # ■ V -^ 

■ -- 

A I 

*5 (JSWSM^ 


_— — ki 


in the new army which he was_ raising to defy Gage. As fast as the men 
found places they were transferred to the rolls of the new service with pay 
from the day they left Deerfield. Capt. Locke was given a post of honor 
in the new army. In some way — it may have been his soldierly bearing 
or his known activity in the rebel cause — Stebbins had attracted the at- 
tention of Ward who, on April 27, appointed him Captain in Col. Jonathan 
Brewers regiment, and his appointment was forwarded to the Continen- 
tal Congress at Philadelphia. It may be a surprising statement, but it 
is a fact, that Stebbins was appointed a Captain in the rebel army nearly 
two months before Washington was placed in his exalted position. 

For unexplained reasons, before Stebbins's commission was received, 
Ward placed Stebbins in Col. Prescott's regiment, and on the night of June 
16, he was active with pick and spade at Bunker Hill, while the next day 
he was in the thickest of the fight, serving as a Captain under Brewer, with 
a company not fully recruited. 

His commission, dated July 1, 1775, signed b}' John Hancock, Pres- 
ident of the Continental Congress, now hangs in Memorial Hall. This Con- 
gress was made up of men selected from the leading spirits of the rebel col- 

This commission shows Stebbins to have been a Captain in the Sev- 
enth Regiment raised by Washington for the Revolutionary Arm}-. 

The commission follows: — 

In Congress. 

The Delegates of the United Colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts-Bay, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, the Counties of New-Castle, Kent, and Suffex on Delaware. Mary- 
land, Virginia, North-Carolina and South-Carolina to Joseph Stebbins, 

We reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your Patriotism, Valour, Con- 
duct and Fidelity DO by these presents constitute and appoint you to be 
Captain of a Company in the 7th Regiment, commanded by Col. Brewer, 
in the army of the United Colonies, raised for the Defense of American 


Liberty, and for repelling every hostile Invasion thereof. You are there- 
fore carefully and diligently to discharge the Duty of Captain by doing 
and performing all Manner of Things thereunto belonging. And we do strict- 
ly charge and require all Officers and Soldiers under your Command to be 
obedient to your orders as Captain. And you are to observe and follow 
such Orders and Directions from Time to Time, as you shall receive from 
this or a future Congress of the United Colonies, or Committee of Congress, 
for that Purpose appointed, or Commander in Chief for the Time being of 
the Army of the United Colonies, or any other your superior Officer, accord- 
ing to the Rules and Discipline of War, in Pursuance of the Trust reposed 
in you. This Commission to continue in Force until revoked by this or 
a future Congress. 
July 1st 1775 By order of the Congress 

John Hancock, President 
Attest Chas Thomson Secy* 

Having received his commission Capt. Stebbins was now a full-fledged 
soldier in the continental army which had been put by Congress under 
the command of George Washington, June 19, only eleven days before Steb- 
bins's commission was made out. Let us note that this commission was 
issued in the same room and by the same body of men which had commis- 
sioned Washington Commander-in-chief of the rebel army. 

Washington left Philadelphia June 21 to take command of the American 
army at Cambridge; this he did July 3, a memorable day in the history of 
the colonies. 

Capt. Stebbins was in Col. Brewer's regiment which was then at Head- 
quarters, Cambridge. Aug. 1, Stebbins's Company was full. We know that 
he was earnestly engaged under Brewer in driving Gage and Howe out 
of Boston. Bunker Hill had spoken in tones of thunder, Howe had taken 
counsel of prudence, and Boston was evacuated Mar. 17. 1776. 

Owing to an unfortunate accident a large number of the old Stebbins 
family papers were destroyed, so that we have fewer particulars than we 

*\n examination will show that this commission was issued by twelve colonies only; as Geoi 
last, the thirteenth, had now taken its place, the presumption is that the economical secretary of the S< 
Congress utilized a printed form left over from the First Congress. 



*Jl> Delegates of the United Colonies of Ncw-Harapfhire, Mafijchufetts-Bayi Rhode-Ifland, Con- 
ncdicut, New-York, New-Jerfey, Pennfylvania, the Counties of New-Caftle, Kent, and SufTcx .•: 
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, <*«*/ South-Carolina, to £&*jL4^ .^fep/lvi. 

WE repofmg efpecial Truft and Confidence in your Patriorifm, Valour, Conduct and Fidelity, 
D O by thefe Prefents, conftitute and appoint you to be £*l^£j£^c^, ^^ ' *^ £~— i^S^ 

in tlie Army of the United Colonies, raifed for the Defence of American Liberty, and for repelling every 

hofule Invafjon thereof. You are therefore carefully and diligently to difcharge the Duty of 

fj//f~~^i^, by doing and performing all Manner of Things thereunto belonging. And we do ftrictly 
cKargc and require all Officers and Soldiers under your Command, to be obedient to your Orders as 
/Vy^Tj^^ And you arc to obferve and follow fuch Orders <ind Directions from 

Time to Time, as you {hall receive frofli this or a future Congrefs of the United Colonies, or Committee 
of Congrefs, for that Purpofe appointed, or Commander in Chief for the Time being of the Army of 
the United Colonies, or any other yourffuperior Officer, according to the Rules and Difcipline of War, 
» Purfuance of the Truft repofed in you. This Commiffion to continue in Force until revoked by thil 
©r a future Congrefs. 

LjL ¥~mi & OriiF cf the Congrcf, 

<f ' /7^*/&^^sZ^ 




could wish of the Revolutionary service of Capt. Stebbins. At the time 

of the Declaration of Independence we find him in Cambridge in command 
of a company under Major-General Artemas Ward. 

We come now to one of the leading events in the history of the Rev- 
olutionary War, in which Capt. Stebbins had an active part. I feel a just 
pride in paying all honor to my mother's father. 

King George had sent Thomas Gage across the waves to straighten 
out affairs in and about Boston., Gage had failed and been recalled prac- 
tically in disgrace. In 1777, Gen. John Burgoyne was sent with an'army 
of Regulars and a horde of Hessians, with instructions to sweep the pesti- 
lent rebels off the face of the earth. 

About the time the news reached here that Burgoyne's Hessians were 
marching toward New England — and their fate — orders were received for 
reinforcing the rebel army in northern Xew York. 

Capt. Stebbins was now — August, 1777 — in Deerfield. With Lieut. 
John Bardwell and 45 men he marched directly to Bennington. They were 
too late for the battle, but they had the satisfaction of seeing the Hessians 
already prisoners in the meetinghouse. From Bennington Capt. Stebbins 
marched to Batten Kill, and joined the regiment of Col. David Wells of 
Shelburne. From there they marched to Fort Edward to cut off the re- 
treat of Burgoyne's army. While at Fort Edward Capt. Stebbins called 
for volunteers to follow him across the Hudson to surprise an outpost of 
Burgoyne near Fort Miller. I was personally acquainted with one of these 
volunteers, Jeremiah Xewton of Deerfield, from whom I obtained consid- 
erable information concerning this campaign. In September, 1777, Bur- 
goyne appeared with an apparently invincible force near Saratoga. On 
the 19th a fierce engagement occurred with Gates and his rebels in which 
both parties claimed the victory. On the 20th the struggle was renewed. 
Burgoyne was totally defeated and driven from the field. The King's sweep- 
ers were smothered in the dust they had raised. Burgoyne's shattered 
army became hemmed in by Gates and mortally wounded. All the heal- 
ing waters of Saratoga could bring no balm to Burgoyne. He found no 


avenue of escape. On Oct. 17, he was a prisoner with his whole army in the 
hands of the rebel General. Thus ended the memorable battle of Sara- 
toga and the boastful campaign of Burgoyne. 

It was now that our Deerfield heroes saw the head of the proud Briton 
humbled to the earth. 

Burgoyne had discovered his mistake. He had declared a few weeks 
before that the rebels were made up of the lowest stratum of the peasantry 
with few or no respectable persons among them. He had no more idea that 
he should be successfully opposed by this riff-raff than he had of riding on 
horseback to the moon. 

The trained troops of Burgoyne were contesting only for their King, 
and must of necessity, in the long run, give way before the Patriots who, 
inspired by the spirit of freedom, were desperately struggling for their own 
individual sovereignty. 

Men of might had come to the front and were declared leaders by ac- 
clamation. In fact, a new and powerful nation had sprung into being based 
on individual rights. 

We now exhibit in Memorial Hall a few spoils of the Saratoga campaign. 
One item is a linen towel brought home by Capt. Stebbins, and a brass candle- 
stick secured by Capt. Maxwell of Charlemont, both from the personal 
belongings of Burgoyne. Stebbins also brought back part of a manuscript- 
book belonging to the commissary department of Burgoyne's army. The 
last entry made in it by the department was Oct. S, 1777. This book con- 
tained a detailed account of rations given out to the Tory volunteers and 
camp assistants, six hundred and seventy-five names appearing on the pages 
preserved. An examination shows that this book was utilized by the Con- 
tinentals as an orderly book at "Headquarters, Fort Edward." Oct. 13. 
14, 15. On the 14th Col. David Wells was field officer of the day with 47 
of his men on guard duty. On one of the blank pages of the book Capt. 
Stebbins, on Oct. 18, made up a pay roll of his own company. This list of 
the men is here given save that the names of the privates are placed alpha- 
betically; one hundred and fifteen miles travel was allowed to each man. 



Capt. Joseph Stebbins 
Lt. John Bardwell 
Sergt. George Herbert 
Sergt. Abel Parker 

Allen, Joseph 
Andrews, Xehemiah 
Beaman, John 
Billings, Thomas 
Bliss, David 
Burt, Ithamar 
Burt, Simeon 
Catlin, Timothy 
Childs, Lemuel 
Connable, John 
Dickinson, Eliphalet 
Faxon, Thomas 

Sergt. Daniel Slate 
Sergt. Samuel Turner 
Corp. David Hoyt 
Corp. Zibah Phillips 


Frary, Nathan 
Gait, John 
Gray, David 
Gray, Robert 
Harding, Abiel 
Joiner, Edward 
Joiner, William 
Maxwell, Philip 
Miller, Tilotson 
Newton, Jeremiah 
Newton, Levi 
Orvis, William 

Corp. Samuel Gladding 
Corp. Jason Parmenter 

Drummer, James Warren 
Fifer, Justin Hitchcock 

Parker, Samuel 
Sanderson, Joseph 
Sheldon, Amasa 
Sheldon, Cephas 
Stone, Elias 
Taylor, Eliphalet 
Taylor, John 
Tute, Moses 
Webster, Stephen 
Wells, Thomas 
Wheat, Samuel 

The day after the surrender of Saratoga, Capt. Stebbins and his com- 
pany took the trail for home, the blood of each tingling with the conscious- 
ness that he had done something to bring about this glorious result. 

We must leave to the imagination the stories these gallant soldiers 
told to their neighbors and one another while peacefully smoking their 
pipes at their evening haunt in the store of Col. David Field, which stood 
under the folds of the liberty flag, opposite the home of their Captain. 

Comparatively little is known of Capt. Stebbins's military history during 
the closing years of the war. In 1779 and 1780 he is in lists of soldiers "serv- 
ing short terms from Deerfield.'' In 1781 he was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the "Fifth regiment of militia in the County of Hampshire.' 1 
This commission signed by John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts, 
now hangs in Memorial Hall. This year Stebbins enlisted for three years 
or the war. In the late autumn of 1783 Washington discharged all the 
soldiers whom he had so enlisted. 


Lieut. -Col. Stebbins assisted Gov. Hancock in the troublous times of 
Shays's Rebellion, and the arms taken from these truculent malcontents 
were stored for safe keeping in his garret. With all the temptations of the 
owners to recover their arms by force, Gov. Hancock must have had great 
confidence in the martial or mental power of the Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Ma}- 22, 178S, Lieut. -Col. Stebbins was commissioned by Gov. Hancock, 
Colonel of the Second Massachusetts regiment. 

On the death of Washington, Deerfleld had appropriate and imposing 
ceremonies. It was certainly fitting that Col. Stebbins should be one of 
five who conducted the obsequies on that occasion. 

In addition to his active military career Col. Stebbins performed his 
part in the civil life of the community. He was eight years on the board 
of selectmen, and often held minor offices of the town. 

Col. Stebbins was much interested in education and was a member of a 
corporation which established a private school on the Town Street.' He 
was one of four citizens of Deerfleld who petitioned for and secured from 
the General Court a charter for the Deerfleld Academy in 1797. In 1S06 
he presented a planetarium and lunarium to the collection of scientific ap- 
paratus of the Academy, thus showing his interest in scientific studies. 

We have followed the career of Joseph Stebbins so far as known, and 
have found him always and early in the foremost ranks of workers. He 
played his part faithfully and well at the outbreak of the Revolution, the 
time of his country's direst need. He lived to see the colonies free, and 
a nation leading the world. 

Footnote. — The cover of this number bears a picture of the cocked 
hat of Colonel Joseph Stebbins, and his sword carried at the battle of 
Bunker Hill. 


By Raymond B. Fosdick, 

(Formerly Commissioner of Accounts, City of New York) 

No one can consistently follow the current newspapers and magazines 
without gathering the impression that something is radically wrong with 
government in the United States. Our scheme seems to break down a 
great deal. We read of it on every hand. We hear of the shame of cities 
and the wholesale corruption of electorates. It is a favorite topic of lec- 
turers and after dinner speakers. It has become a by-word, a symbol, deep- 
ly rooted in public imagination. The impression seems to be spread abroad 
that popular government in this country has struck a snag, that the govern- 
mental machinery has been taken out of the hands of the people, and that 
graft and corruption are undermining the foundations of the republic. More- 
over, in the minds of a great many people there rests the idea that these 
insidious influences in American politics have developed in our generation. 
That is, that we received our form of government and our political ideas 
pure and unspotted from the fathers; that they handed down to us an un- 
polluted ideal which had been fought and died for; and that somehow or 
other, in our time, it has become corrupted — the shadow of what it once 
was. According to this view, we are the prodigal sons who have abused 
the bounty of our fathers. 

It was not long ago that a prominent candidate for the presidential 
nomination gave vent in eloquent utterance to this idea which I am sure 
is common with a great many people. He talked of Bunker Hill and the 
fight for liberty; he spoke of the government by the people which was de- 
creed by the inspired constitutional convention of 1787; he said that the 

*An address delivered before the People's Institute at Cooper Union, X. Y. 



first foreign students of American democracy were loud in their praises of 
our success, but that latterly, in these days, and apparently within the two 
decades just completed, corruption had crept insidiously into our midst 
and the wedge of vicious influence had been driven between the people and 
their government. In other words, he gave to his audience a vision of 
the good old days, when there was no graft and no corruption, when our 
government was truly a government by the'people and for the people, when 
we conducted our public affairs with dignity and decorum in democratic 
simplicity. And I fancy that there are a great many citizens who look 
back upon the splendid visions of those old days with sighs of regret at our 
modern tendencies, in whose hearts there is the sincere cry of "Back to De- 
mocracy: Once more let the People Rule!'' 

Perhaps, therefore, it would be profitable for us if we could consider 
for a little while the ideals of those good old days. How was it that de- 
mocracy succeeded so well in the time of our fathers? How was it that the 
people controlled so wisely and so thoroughly the machinery of their gov- 
ernment? Upon what food did our fathers eat that they should grow so 
great? I fancy that we can profit by the answers to these questions. If 
there was a secret to successful democracy in those days, perhaps it is ap- 
plicable today. Moreover, it pays occasionally, I believe, to sit down quiet- 
ly and determine just where we are, to measure by careful historical stand- 
ards our success and our failures. Once in so often the wise merchant stops 
his sales and take stock of his goods. Let us. if we can, take stock of our 
national growth. 

I suggest, therefore, a review of the good old days of our fathers. It 
is not necessary to waste much time upon the Colonial period before the 
American Revolution. Our government was not yet formed. We were 
under English rule. And evident!}' the ideals for which our fathers are 
celebrated by a grateful posterity were not in operation on the other - 
of the xUlantic. We are shocked to learn that the English contemporaries 
of our illustrious sires were quite given over to a thorough-going corrup- 
tion in carrying on their public business. George III and his cabinet min- 


isters resorted to bribery in nearly every form to buy support for their pol- 
icies. Money, pensions and jobs were freely and openly used to reward 
friends or to purchase votes in Parliament. In 1702 a shop was publicly 
opened at the British pay office whither the members of the House of Com- 
mons flocked to receive the wages of their votes. Twenty-five thousand 
pounds were issued in a single morning. During the period immedi 
prior to our American revolution, the British Parliament was, according 
to Mr. Walpole, "a nest of unblushing corruption." Is it not remark- 
able, therefore, that our fathers, sprung from the same stock and in the 
day and generation, should have kept themselves so spotle>>? 

But let us pass to the heroic scenes of the Revolution, to the great fight 
for liberty and equal representation. Here we shall surely find an urn 
effort at government, pure and undefiled. But what is this? John Adams, 
the great patriot, writes that the Continental Congress during the Rev- 
olution was " debauched and inefficient." "The rage for office was great." 
he says. "The Congress was torn to pieces by disputes over spoils." The 
President of Congress in 1778 speaks of the scenes of "venality, peculation 
and fraud" which accompany the operations of Congress. Wa<hinc;ton 
wrote of the gathering of patriots: "Part}' disputes and personal quarrels 
are the great business of the day." And this was the Continental Con- 
gress of our fathers. 

But still John Adams was naturally petulant — and perhaps Mr. Wash- 
ington was tired wlien he wrote that sentence. Let us pa<s on. The gov- 
ernment after all was not established until the constitutional convention 
of 1787. Perhaps the ideals of the fathers had not yet crystallized. But 
when once the ship of state is launched, surely we shall find the fathers at 
their best! We shall find popular government in its truest sense! We 
shall find the good old days! 

The constitutional convention of 1787 — what an epoch it marked in 
our history! But let us look a little closer. The idea of popular govern- 
ment as we understand it — that is, government by the people and for the 
people — the machinery of government in the hands of the governed — this 


idea apparently did not appeal to the fathers. It is evident that their de- 
sire was not to enable the people to control the government, but to enable 
the government to control the people. The framers of the constitution 
made not intentional provisions for the control of government by public 
opinion. The idea could hardly have occurred to them. As a matter of 
fact, public opinion in the modern sense of the word was not then known. 
Democracy was "synonymous with confusion and licentiousness" as one 
of the speakers in the Constitutional Convention expressed it. The people 
could not be trusted. They could not be trusted to elect their United 
States Senators directly, but must have an intermediary body perform the 
function for them. They could not be trusted to select their president: 
that must be left to the electoral college. As one of the great fathers ex- 
pressed it in the constitutional convention: "To leave the choice of the 
chief magistrate to the people would be as unnatural as to leave a choice of 
colors to a blind man." Popular government? Not at all! The fathers 
had no burning faith in the ultimate good sense of the people. Edmund 
Randolph traced the political evils of the country to ''the turbulence and 
follies of democracy." Alexander Hamilton frankly dreaded democracy and 
wanted to give the rich and well-born, as he expressed it, a distinct and 
permanent share in the government. Listen to his argument in the Con- 
stitutional Convention as reported by one of his contemporaries: 

"The voice of the people has been said to be the voice of God. 
However generally this maxim has been quoted and believed it is not 
true in fact. The people are turbulent and changing. They sel- 
dom judge or determine right. Can a democratic assembly be sup- 
posed steadily to pursue the public good? Nothing but a permanent 
body can check the imprudence of democracy.'' 

Similarly, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts spoke as follows: 

"The evils we experience flow from the excess of democracy. 
The people do not want virtue, but are the dupes of pretended 


In plan and structure the constitution was devised to check the power 

of popular majorities. It was as late as 1820 that Sir Robert Peel, repre- 
senting the sentiment of his time, spoke contemptuously of "that great com- 
pound of folly, weakness, prejudice, wrong-feeling, obstinacy, and news- 
paper paragraphs which is called public opinion.'' 

But you may say: perhaps it is true that in their political philosophy 
the fathers distrusted popular rule. But regardless of their theories, the 
machinery of government was actually lodged in the hands of the people, 
was it not? What does it matter whether our forefathers agreed with it 
or not, as long as the people had it — as long as they were free agents to 
carry on their own government? But listen! Our fathers in the good old 
days of the constitution had no idea of conferring upon all citizens the right 
to vote. Suffrage was jealoulsy restricted. It was not for the mass of the 
people to vote. The vote was a privilege to be exercised by ''the wealthy 
and well-born" as Alexander Hamilton expressed it. It was a privilege 
that was guarded by property and religious qualifications. In the State 
of New York in these good old days a citizen had to possess an estate or 
pay a rent of fifty shillings a year before he could vote for an assemblyman. 
It was 1822 after most of the framers of the constitution were in their graves, 
before manhood suffrage was established in New York. In Xew Jersey 
the qualification for suffrage was in the days of the constitution real estate 
to the value of fifty pounds. Xo citizen of Massachusetts could be a gov- 
ernor if he did not own one thousand pounds worth of real estate, nor a 
senator unless he owned three hundred pounds worth. Religious restric- 
tions were almost universal in this country. In Xew Hampshire. X'ew Jersey, 
Xorth Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, the governors, meml ( rs 
of the legislature, and chief officers of State had to be Protestants. In Mass- 
achusetts and [Maryland they had to be ''Christians" (the word is quoted 
from the statute). Xorth Carolina provided that no person who should 
"deny the being of God or the truth of the Protestant religion or the di- 
vine authority either of the Old or Xew Testament" should lie eligible for 
office or other place of trust. Tennessee said: ''Xo person who denies 


the being of God or a future state of rewards and punishments shall hold 
any office in the civil department of the state." Pennsylvania drew the line 
on atheists: "Nor can any man who acknowledges the being of a God be justly 
deprived or abridged of any civil right." In Delaware, office-holders had to 
subscribe to the doctrine of the Trinity. These were the good old days! 

But let us look a little further in our quest for the good old day.-. Per- 
haps you are saying that political methods were better in those days even 
;lf our fathers were a little unsteady in their views on popular government. 
'The high ideals that inspired the fight for liberty must surely have inspired 
'•clean political processes. In other words, in those days there could have 
"been no graft and no corruption, and even if suffrage was restricted be- 
cause of an erroneous political conception, the actual voters got what they 
wanted. The tools of Democracy were intact. 

Let us see. In 1791, (and the example is picked at random from the 
political history of the time) George Clinton ran against John Jay for the 
governorship of New York. Both were ardent patriots. Both had done 
much for the cause of American independence. And yet Clinton's patriot- 
ism did not prevent him from resorting to desperate means. The vote 
was close, and when at last it became apparent that Jay had been elected, 
Clinton caused the ballots of two whole counties to be thrown out. These 
counties had rolled up large majorities for Jay. Clinton was thereupon 
declared elected, and served his term. His picture hangs in the State Cap- 
itol and is revered by thousands of visitors every year who, as they gaze 
upon his handsome features, doubtless contemplate his lofty purpose in 
laving the foundation of democracy in this state. But John Jay. that em- 
inent patriot, the man who did so much for the constitution in 17S7, what 
became of him? He had his revenge. In 1S01 he was elected governor 
of New York. But he could not make the appointments to office that he 
wished. The state constitution stood in his way. But what was the con- 
stitution between friends? He had the constitution changed. The pat- 
ronage was delivered into the hands of his own party, and lie wiped the 
Clintonites off the face of the political map. Those were the good old days! 


Let us look a little further into the political methods of our fathers. 
In 1812, the Republicans of Massachusetts found it politically expedient 
to break the power of the Federalists. But the Federalists were in the ma- 
jority. So the Republicans, under the leadership of that venerable patriot, 
Governor Gerry, invented an ingenious scheme for robbing the majority 
of its power. They called it the Gerrymander. It consisted of a plan 
whereby the existing election districts or units of representation were cut 
up and reformed, so that a large number of Republicans would be oppi 
in the same district by a smaller number of Federalists. The invention 
worked beyond expectations. Our fathers were delighted. Massachu- 
setts having instituted the device, it was immediately followed in Xew York. 
New Jersey and Maryland. In the city of Xew York, two wards were joined 
to Long Island to form an election district with the desired result that the 
Federalist majority was shattered. And these were the good old days! 

Shall I go further? In 1815, the Republicans of Xew York State stole 
the assembly from the Federalists by resorting to the simple method of 
throwing out in cold blood the one man whose vote gave the Federalists 
the majority. In 1812, the members of the X^ew York State assembly signed 
a resolution, each man pledging himself not to take "any reward or pr< I 
direct or indirect, for any vote on any measure." Three days afl 
the resolution was signed, the members were accusing each other of breaking it. 

The good old days seem a bit elusive. And there is no disguising the 
fact that the days of the fathers of our constitution were not good, that is 
when we judge them by the standards of our time. As Professor McMasI 
remarks, a little study of long forgotten politics is enough to convince any- 
one that in filibustering and gerrymandering, in stealing governor-:.:; - 
and legislatures, in using force at the polls, in colonizing and in distribut- 
ing patronage, in all the fraud and tricks that go to make up the worst 
form of practical politics, the men who founded our state and national gov- 
ernments were, according to our standards, politically depraved. If we 
are looking for the good old times, for the days of pure and unspotted d< - 
mocracv, we will not find them in the infancy of this republic. 


But let us continue the search. The good old days must have exi 
some time, else where did we get our tradition of them? Moreover, it is 
hardly fair to judge an experiment in democracy like the United Si 
by the first thirty years of its existence. It takes time to get the machin- 
ery adjusted; it takes a generation properly to educate the people to new 
responsibilities. Let us leave the period of the constitutional fathers and 
take up the second generation. Here we shall surely find what we seek 
after — a government uncorrupted and incorruptible, a citizenship pure 
and undefiled. Perhaps we shall find it in our own city of New York as 
she existed ninety years ago. Let us look. 

Ninety years ago we had in New York City but one public school, which 
was maintained by public subscription. Water was supplied chief!}- by 
the Manhattan Company, by means of bored wooden logs laid underground 
from the reservoir in Chambers Street. No fire department worthy of the 
name was dreamed of, and every blaze had the city at its mercy. The 
streets were unclean. Only two or three thoroughfares were fit for the pas- 
sage of carriages. Briefly speaking, the city was filthy and neglected; its 
public improvements and expenditures were in a chaotic state. 

This does not constitute a very favorable setting for our good old times. 
But let us get at the kernel beneath the exterior. Is it possible that petty 
graft existed in those days as in these? Is it possible that public rights 
w T ere disregarded and sacrificed for the benefit of a chosen few? Alas for 
our theories! The history of the City of New York in the first part of the 
nineteenth century is a record of shameless corruption, in comparison with 
which our modern New York is Utopia. I will not weary you with details. 
Public opinion seemed to be lifeless. Exposure followed exposure only to 
result in the return of the same old gang to office. Public expenditures 
w r ere made by committees of the Board of Aldermen who refused to rentier 
any accounting of what they spent. Public contracts were let to public 
officials. A collector of the port, who stole a million and a half of public 
money, was allowed to go unmolested for seven month- after the theft was 
publicly known, because of his political influence. Land owned by the 


municipality in the heart of the city was sold at low prices to politicians. 
In this way we lost our dock rights on the water front and our chance to 
develop an extensive park system in Manhattan. The United States District 
Court convened for a while in Tammany Hall because Tammany Hall need- 
ed the rent that was paid by the city. Our streets were an abomination 
of filth; yellow fever and cholera three times devastated the city — and in 
1822 it was so deserted as a result of disease that grass grew in the princi- 
pal thoroughfares. Fraud and violence were customarily used on election 
day. Wagon loads of repeaters were openly taken from ward to ward to vote. 
In 1830, Walter Bowne was elected Mayor of city by the Aldermen through 
bribery that was never punished. In 1S32 votes for President Jackson 
were openly solicited at 85.00 each. In 183S, 200 roughs were brought by 
the Whigs from Philadelphia to steer the repeaters at the polls. Inmates 
of the House of Detention who promised to vote the Whig ticket were set 
at liberty. In 1839. the Albany police brought twenty-three repeaters 
to help with the election in Xew York. In 1S40 it was shown that the po- 
lice justices made a practice of extorting money from prisoners, and of shield- 
ing from arrest or conviction counterfeiters, thieves and street walkers. 
Nothing was done in the matter. The police justices continued in office. 
These were the good old days! 

Shall I continue? Just for a moment. From 1S40 to 1870, when Tt 
came into power, the political history of Xew York reads like a debauch. 
Assessments for improvements never actually made were laid on the tax- 
payers. The aldermen participated in all the profitable jobs. Convicts 
were allowed to escape from Blackwell's Island on condition that they vote 
as their keepers ordered. Prisoners whose terms had expired were kept 
at public expense until election day to get their votes. The inmates of the 
Almshouse and the Penitentiary were forced to manufacture articles for 
the use and profit of the officials of those departments. In 1851 the so- 
called "forty thieves" were in power in the Board of Aldermen. Election 
frauds were so numerous that they failed to excite comment. Ballot boxes 
were stolen. Boys and paupers voted without interference. The police 


who were appointed for one year by the Board of Aldermen were utterly 
demoralized. In 1851, the Sth and 9th Avenue railroad franchises v 
purchased from the Board of Aldermen by a boodle fund of $50,000. The 
Third Avenue Railroad franchise was purchased by 830,000 paid in bribes. 
The Williamsburg Ferry Lease was purchased by a S20.000 boodle fund. 
The Wall Street Ferry lease was similarly disposed of. The board of Al- 
dermen sold the Gansevoort Market property to a Tammany politician for 
$160,000, in the face of other bids of 8225,000 and $300,000, respectively. 
In fact, as was stated at the time, bribery was considered a joke. The Al- 
dermen, the police, and all the city officials extorted vast sums of money in 
every possible way. And note this: such was the condition of public opin- 
ion that the people paid it. It was part of the game. These were the good 
old days. 

Shall we go further? Surely not to the days of Tweed in the seventies 
when the gang stole $150,000,000 of the people's money and Tweed shrugged 
his broad shoulders and asked, "What are you going to do about it?" 
Our quest is hopeless in that quarter. Xor can we gain comfort by follow- 
ing it to the later days of John Kelly and Richard Croker. But where 
shall we turn? To the National Government? Listen to George Frisbee 
Hoar of Massachusetts, rising in his seat in Congress on May 6, 1S7G: 

"My own public life has been a very brief and insignificant one, 
extending little beyond the duration of a single term of senatorial 
office. But in that brief period I have seen five judges of a high 
court of the United States driven from office by threats of impeach- 
ment for corruption or maladministration. I have heard the taunt. 
from the friendliest lips, that when the Lnited States presented 
herself in the East to take part with the civilized world in generous 
competition in the arts of life, the only product of her institutions 
in which she surpassed all others beyond question was her corruption. 
I have seen in the State in the Union foremost in power and wealth 
four judges of her courts impeached for corruption, and the polit- 
ical administration of her chief city become a disgrace and a by-word 
throughout the world. I have seen the chairman of the Com- 

' -v. 


mittee on Military Affairs in the House, rise in his place and demand 
the expulsion of four of his associates for making sale of their of:. 
privilege of selecting the youths to be educated at our great mil- 
itary school. When the greatest railroad of the world bin. ling to- 
gether the continent and uniting the two seas which wash our shori 5, 
was finished, I have seen our nationl triumph and exaltation turned 
to bitterness and shame by the unanimous reports of three commit- 
tees of Congress — two of the House and one here — that every st< 
of that mighty enterprise had been taken in fraud. I have heard 
in highest places the shameless doctrine avowed by men grown 
old in public office that the true way by which power should be 
gained in the Republic is to bribe the people with the offices created 
for their service, and the true end for which it should be used when 
gained is the promotion of selfish ambition and the gratification 
of personal revenge. I have heard that suspicion haunts the foot- 
steps of the trusted companions of the President. " 

We cannot dodge the issue. Graft and corruption existed in the thir- 
ties and forties and fifties and sixties and seventies more than we know any- 
thing about today. In 1872, the investigation of the Credit-Mobilier scan- 
dal brought to light the information that Congressman Oakes Ames, of Mass- 
achusetts, the leading spirit in the construction of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road, had sold to many of his fellow Congressmen blocks of stock in the 
holding-company of that railroad, in spite of the fact that legislation af- 
fecting the interest of the company was pending in Washington. Three 
hundred and forty-three shares of the Credit-Mobilier were transferred 
to Ames as Trustee. "I shall put these," he wrote from Washington in 
a private letter, "where they will do most good to us. I am here on the 
spot and can better judge where they should go." Even the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives was implicated and was shown to have per- 
jured himself before the investigating committee in his attempt to conceal 
his operations. Two members of the House and a United States Senator were 
recommended by the committee for dismissal on the grounds of corruption. 
while some of the best known figures in Congress were smirched with the 


But this was not all. In 1875, an investigation set on foot by the 
Secretary of the Treasury brought to light the fact that the private secre- 
tary of President Grant was one of the leading actors in the St. Louis whis- 
ky ring which had defrauded the government out of nearly 83,000,000 in 
internal revenue. The secretary was indicted by the Grand Jury for con- 
spiracy and while he was later acquitted at his trial it was under such cir- 
cumstances as left no doubt that he had shared the profits of the ring. Hard- 
ly had this discovery been made known to the country when the chairman 
of the Committee on Expenditures of the House of Representatives announced 
that his committee had ''found at the very threshold of their inves- 
tigations uncontradicted evidence of malfeasance in office by the Secretary 
of War." It was shown that this officer had been receiving regularly sums 
which totalled approximately 820,000 for his influence- in securing for a 
henchman a well-paid government job. The committee recommended 
that the Secretary be impeached of high crimes' and misdemeanors, but 
on the same day the Secretary resigned. These were the good old days! 

As if this were not enough, the country was further humiliated by 
the spectacle of the chief aspirant for the Republican nomination for Presi- 
dent — the plumed knight, Xew England's favorite son — attempting with- 
out success to persuade the country and the convention that he was not 
tainted with corruption, and losing the nomination because the people were 
not convinced. Indeed, forty years ago was a time of shame and dishonor 
and the centennial of American independence in 1876 was celebrated by 
the thoughtful people of the country in sack-cloth and ashes, in a period 
of national ill-repute. Lowell's satirical poem, called "The World's Fair,'' 
1876, is illustrative of popular feeling: — 

"Columbia, puzzled what she should display 
Of true home-make on her Centennial Day. 
Asked Brother Jonathan: he scratched his head, 
Whittled awhile reflectively, and said, 
Your own invention and own making too? 
Why any child could tell ye what to do: 


Show 'cm your Civil Service and explain 
How all men's loss is everybody's gain; 

Show your State Legislatures; show your Rings 
And challenge Europe to produce such things 
As high officials sitting half in sight 
To share the plunder and to fix things right; 
If that don't fetch her, why you only need 
To show your latest style in martyrs — Tweed: 
She'll find it hard to hide her spiteful tears 
At such advance in one poor hundred years." 

Good old days? Our search is ended, we shall never find them, for 
they never existed. There were no good old days! 

Perhaps you are thinking that the picture I have drawn is an exceed- 
ingly gloomy, one. But at least we have gotten this far: There were no 
good old days. Insidious influences in American politics have not first ap- 
peared in our time. We are not the degenerate sons of our fathers. If we 
have sinned in our generation, so did they in theirs. 

But it seems to me that there is ground for a great deal of hope in what 
we have been reviewing. It is true that democratic machinery has broken 
down many times in the history of the republic, not because the system 
w T as faulty, but because the people who tried to run it were faulty. It is 
true today that corruption steals in when the door is open, and the price 
of liberty is eternal vigilance. But can any man as he reads the history 
of his country or his city fail to believe that there has been a steady advance 
not only in our ideal of democracy, but in our attainment of the ideal? Let 
no one mistake it: this is more truly a popular government than it ever has 
been in our history. The machinery of government — the tools of de- 
mocracy, are controlled by the people as they never have been before; and 
we have so far advanced from the days of our fathers, not only in th< 
but in practice, that those old times seem wretched in comparison. 

In the face of the advance which we have made in the last one luin- 


dred years, it is wicked to talk of degeneration and decay. When the ni - 
teenth century opened there was not a civic organization in the entire land. 
Public opinion was uneducated and unintelligent. Partisanship in 
itics was carried to an extreme of bitterness and violence with which we 
are utterly unfamiliar. Our public institutions reflected the <■■ 
and callousness of the time. Our jails were sinks of filth and depravity. 
The whipping post, the branding iron, and the treadmill were in cont- 
use. When the 19th century opened there was not a blind asylum, nor a 
deaf and dumb asylum, nor a lunatic asylum, nor a house of refuge in all 
our land. As Dr. McMaster has pointed out, we have turned our prisons 
from seminaries of crime into reformatories of crime. We have cut down the 
number of crimes punishable with death fifteen to one. We have abol- 
ished imprisonment for debt. We have exterminated slavery. We have 
improved conditions among working men. We have covered our coun- 
try with schools and libraries and institutions of civic and social better- 
ment. We have committed our government more and more into the hands 
of the governed. We have developed a popular sensitiveness to social evils 
and injustice. We are steadily raising the standard of public service and 
drawing the line more sharply and distinctly between right and wrong in 
public life. We are beginning to see what our fathers never dreamed: that 
the sole cure for the evils of democracy is more democracy. And so when 
the pessimist rises in his place to croak "Back to Democracy," my answer 
to him would be that democracy does not lie behind, it lies ahead: and that 
while there are evils enough at the present da}' they do not begin to com- 
pare in danger or extent with those out of which we have come. 

In times of stress like these we need to believe in ourselves and in our 
capacity for growth as a people. History is the cure for pessimism. 



Colonel Joseph Read's 6th Regiment, Provincial Army, April-July 
1775. Colonel Joseph Read's 20th Regiment, Army of 
the United Colonies, July-October 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

This regiment was composed principally of residents of Worcester and 
Norfolk Counties in about equal proportion, with some men from Middle- 
sex and Bristol Counties. 

The earliest list of Field and Staff officers is the following: 

Col. Joseph Read, Uxbridge, engaged April 24, 1775 

Lt, Col. Ebenezer Clap, Walpole, " " 24. 1775 

Major Calvin Smith, Mendon, " 24, 1775 

Adjt. John Holden " " 24, 1775 

Qtm'r William Jennison " 24,1775 

Surg. Levi Willard " " 24,1775 

" Mate John Adams " " 24,1775 

The following list of commissioned officers of this regiment. May 18, 
1775, is given in Force's American Archives 4-11, p. 823. 

"Joseph Read, Colonel 

Ebenezer Clap, Lieutenant Colonel 

Calvin Smith, Ala j or 

Hezikiah Chapman, Chaplin 

John Holden, Adjutant 

William Jennison, Quartermaster 

Levi Willard, Surgeon 

Joseph Adams, Surgeon's Mate. 



Oliver Pond 
Samuel Payson 
Andrew Peters 
William Briggs 
Seth Bullard 
Samuel Warren 
David Bacheller 
Samuel Cobb 
Moses Knap 
Edward Seagrave 

Received the 

W. Messenger 
Royal Kollock 
Levi Aldrich 
Simeon Leach 
Thomas Pet tee 
Joseph Cod}' 
Benjamin Farrar 
Japhet Daniels 
Nehemiah White 

Elias Bacon 
Enoch Hewens 
William Darling 
Jed South worth 
Ezekial Plympton 
Geo. Whipple 
Robert Taft 
Amos Ellis 
Benjamin Capron 
Peter Taft 

Job Knapp 
Officers 30; Men 564; 

Total 594. 

Watertown May 24, 1775. 
commissions for the officers above mentioned 

Joseph Read, Colonel.*' 

Another list bearing the same date gives the number of men in each 
company as follows: 


Oliver Pond 


Samuel Warren 


Samuel Payson 


David Bacheller 


Andrew Peters 


Samuel Cobb 


William Briggs 


Moses Knap 


Seth Bullard 


Edward Seagrave 
Number of men 








In the records of the Committee of Safety, May 20, 1775, the following 
entry appears: 

"Colonel Joseph Read having satisfied this committee that his reg- 
iment was full, a certificate was given him of the same, and it was recom- 
mended to the honorable, the Provincial Congress, that his regiment might 
be commissioned accordingly. 


Colonel Read had thirteen sets of regulations for the army delivered 
him by order." 

The principal towns represented in this regiment were as follows: 


Samuel Warren. Mendon, Hopkinton, Uxbridge, Bellingham, Cumberland 

(R. I.) Pomfret (Ct.). 
Moses Knap, Mansfield, Wrentham, Attleboro, Norton, Stoughton. 
William Briggs, Stoughton. 
Samuel Cobb, Bellingham, Wrentham, Medway, Mendon, Holliston, 

Oliver Pond, Wrentham, Dedham. 

Edward Seagrave, Uxbridge, Douglas, Brimfield, Sutton. 
Andrew Peters, Mendon, Bellingham, Harvard, Uxbridge, Bennington Yt. . 
David Batehelor, Upton, Xorthbridge. 

Samuel Payson, Stoughtham, Stoughton, Cumberland (R. I.). 
Seth Bullard, Walpole, Medfield, Dedham." 

During the period of service in the Provincial Army, prior to July 1st, 
this regiment was numbered the 6th, but when the army was reorganized 
July 1, 1775, it became fhe 20th regiment in the Army of the United Col- 

July 4, 1775, from the records of the Committee of Safety, we read 
that "nine small arms were delivered to Colonel Joseph Read, for the use 
of his regiment, amounting, as by appraisement, to seventeen pounds, four- 
teen shillings, for which guns a receipt was taken in the minute book.'" 

During the remainder of the year this regiment was stationed at Rox- 

The officers whose names appear in connection with this regiment in 
1775 attained rank in the Revolutionary War as follows: 

1 colonel, 3 lieutenant colonels (1 commandant), 3 majors (1 commandant) 
14 captains, 7 first lieutenants, second lieutenants. 1 surgeon, 1 surgeon's 
mate, 1 chaplain and 1 quartermaster. 

Twenty-six out of the thirty-eight officers herein named had seen ser- 

































vice in the French and Indian Wars or in the Provincial Militia, two of them 
having held the rank of lieutenant and two of ensign. 

The following table shows the strength of the regiment each month 
through the year : 

Date Com. Off. Staff Non. Corns. Rank & Total 

• October 

COLONEL JOSEPH READ of Uxbridge was probably the man of 
that name who was a drummer in Captain John Taft's 2nd Foot Company 
of Uxbridge, March 25, 1757. He was Lieutenant in Captain Samuel 
Fletcher's Second Westford Company, in Colonel John Bulkley's Regiment. 
- October 7, 1774 Captain Joseph Read of Uxbridge was a representative 
from that town in the First Provincial Congress. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he served as Lieutenant in Colonel Silas Wheelock's 7th 
Worcester Count3 r Regiment. Five days later he was engaged as Colonel 
of the Gth Regiment in the Provincial Army. When the army was reor- 
ganized in July 1775 his regiment became the 20th in the Army of the L'nited 
Colonies. He served through the year at Roxbury, and during 17 76 was 
Colonel of the 13th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. 

the son of Deacon Joshua and Abigail (Bullard) Clapp. He was born Nov- 
ember' 17, 1731. April 16, 1766 he was commissioned Ensign in Captain 
Seth Kingsbury's (Walpole) Company, in Colonel Jeremey Gridley's Reg- 
iment. September 16, 1771 he was nominated to hold this rank in Cap- 
tain Seth Kingbury's (Walpole) Company in Colonel Eliphalet Pond's 1st 
Suffolk County Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Lieutenant 


Colonel in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served through the year 
under that officer. During 1776 he was Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel J< 5- 
eph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. He died October 20. L817. 

MAJOR CALVIN SMITH of Mendon was born in 1731. M: 

.28, 1757 he was a private in Captain Willian Thayer's (2nd Mendon Com- 
pany, train band, alarm list. In August of that year on the Fort Will 
Henry alarm he served as private in Captain Phineas Lovett's Company, 
Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment, marching from Mendon to West- 
field. During 175S he was a Lieutenant in Captain Nathan Tyl 
(Mendon) Company, Colonel William Williams's Regiment on an ex; 
to the westward. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Major in Colonel Jos 
Read's Regiment, and he served through the year. During 1776 he 
was Major in Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment in the Continental 
Army. January 1, 1777 he became Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Thomas 
Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. March 10, 1779 he became 
Lieutenant Colonel Commandant of the 13th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line. January 1, 1781 he was transferred to the 6th Regiment. Massachu- 
setts Line, serving in that regiment also as Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 
He served until June 12, 1783. He died August 8, 1S02 at the aire oi 71 
years, 2 months, 21 days. A S. A. R. marker has been placed over his grave 
in the old cemetery in Mendon, Mass. 

ADJUTANT JOHN HOLDEN of Mendon was born about 1737. May 
5, 1756, he was a private in Captain Nathan Tyler's Company. Colonel Richard 
Gridley's Regiment. The records of this service state that he was at 
that time nineteen years of age, a resident of Mendon, and that his birth- 
place was in Sutton. Another record shows an earlier service in Colonel 
Abraham Williams's Regiment. He was a member of Lieutenant Colonel 
Benjamin Thwing's Company, October 11, 1756, at which time he was re- 
ported "sick" on an expedition to Crown Point. August 16th. 17o7 
on an alarm he marched as Corporal in Captain Phineas Lovett's Com- 
pany, Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment. From March 26th to Do- 


cember 3, 1759 he was a Sergeant in Captain John Furness's Company, Col- 
onel William Williams's Regiment. April 25, 1700 he became Sergeant in 
Captain Jonathan Shore's Company, serving under that officer until Aug- 
ust 15th and from that date to December 3rd, under Captain Daniel Read. 
April 19, 1775/'on the alarm occasioned by the excursion of the King's Troups" 
he marched as Adjutant in Colonel Silas Wheelock's (7th Worcester County; 
Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Adjutant in Colonel Joseph 
Read's Regiment, and served through the year. During 1776 he was First 
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Payson's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's 
13th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Thomas Barnes's Company. Colonel Thomas Nixon's 
6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. The records show that at least a por- 
tion of this time he was in Captain Japhet Daniel's Company in the same 
regiment. March 10, 1779 he was promoted Captain. He served until 
his resignation, April 13, 17S0. 

CHAPLAIN HEZEKIAH CHAPMAN of Uxbridge was born in Say- 
brook, Ct. ? August 31, 1746. He was the son of Deacon Caleb and Thank- 
ful (Lord) Chapman. He graduated at Yale in 17G6, studied divinity and 
was ordained pastor of the church at L'xbridge, January 27, 1774. In a 
list of officers in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, dated Camp Roxbury, 
May 18, 1775, his name appears as Chaplain of the regiment, and he served 
through the year. He returned to L'xbridge, and continued in charge of 
the church there until his resignation April 5, 17S1. He afterward studied 
law, and went out West with a company of surveyors. He was lost in the 
woods and his remains, partly eaten by wild beasts, were found later. 

SURGEON LEVI WILLARD of Mendon was probably the man oi 
that name who was the son of Colonel Levi Willard, ami who graduated 
from Harvard in 1775. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Surgeon in Col- 
onel Joseph Read's Regiment, and his name appears in a list of Surgeons 
approved by the 3rd Provincial Congress, July 4, 1775. He served through 
the year in that regiment. 


SURGEON'S MATE JOSEPH ADAMS of Mendon nag the sod of 

Josiah and Sarah (Reed) Adams. He was born in Mendon, August 17. 
1754. April 24, 1775 he enlisted as Surgeon's Mate in Colonel Joseph R< 
Regiment, and served through the year. March 4, 177G he enlu 
Surgeon in Colonel Eleazer Brook's 3rd Middlesex County Regiment. II" 
served five days and then "marched to reinforce the Continental Army," 
becoming Surgeon's Mate in Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment in that 
service. He served as Selectman of Mendon in 1809-12-13. He v.. 3 
representative in the Legislature in 1809-13-15. He removed to Uxbridge 
in 1828, and died in that town May 13, 1830, aged 74 years, 4Jo nionl 


as Sergeant in Captain William Jennison's Company of Minute Men, which 
marched on the alarm of April 19, 1775 to Roxbury and Cambridge. As 
he was also called William, Junior, he was probable the son of the Captain 
of this company. In a regimental return dated Roxbury, May IS. 1775, 
his name appears a^ Quartermaster in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment . 
He served through the year. 

bridge, son of David "Batcheller", was born in Grafton. April 28, 
1742. After his marriage he settled in Norfhbridge. March 28, 1757, 
he was a member of the alarm list in Captain John Spring's 1st l" 
Company. His name appears as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's R< g- 
iment, in the list of officers dated May 18, 1775. He served in this regi- 
ment through the year. December 8, 177G he marched as Captain in Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3rd Worcester County Regiment on an 
alarm to Rhode Island, serving one month, fifteen days at Providence. May 
8, 1778 he was detached to serve in Colonel Asa Wood's 3rd Worcester Coun- 
ty Regiment at North River. He served until January 20. 1770. He was 
a prominent citizen of Northbridge, and held many town and church offices. 
His will was executed in 1805. 


CAPTAIN WILLIAM BRIGGS of Stoughton was the son of Nath 
Briggs, and was born in Taunton about 173G. From May 3 1st to Sep- 
tember 15, 1754 he served as Dentinal in Captain Thomas Cobb's Company, 
Colonel Winslow's Regiment. Before April 15, 175G he enlisted id < - 
tain Joseph Hodges's Company, Colonel Ephraim Leonard's Regiment, 
on a Crown Point Expedition. May 5, 175G he was serving under the same 
Captain in Colonel Richard Gridley's Regiment, his age being given as 
twenty, and his occupation tanner. In a roll dated October 11, 1756 he 
called "drummer" in this same company. May 14, 1757 he was drummer 
in Captain Thomas Cobb's 4th Taunton Company, and in June of that 
year he was in Captain Joseph Hodge's Company, Colonel Ephraim Leonard's 
Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched 
as Captain in a Company of Minute Men from Stoughton, serving twelve 
days. May 1, 1775 he enlisted as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Reg- 
iment, and he served through the year. Xo further record of his Revolu- 
tionary service has been found. He died August 11, 1S19. 

CAPTAIN SETH BULLARD of Walpole was the son of Solomon 
and Jemima Bullard. He was born in Walpole, January 6, 1756-7. He 
marched as Captain of a Marlboro Company in Colonel John Smith's Reg- 
iment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 1, 1775 he enlisted 
as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment and he served through the 
year. February 10 ; 1776 he was commissioned Second Major in Colonel 
Ephraim Wheelock's 4th Suffolk County Regiment. August 9. 1777 he 
was chosen by ballot in the House of Representatives, First Major of the 
same Regiment. In September 1777, he was First Major of the same n g- 
iment under Colonel Benjamin Hawes. August IS. 177S he was engaged 
to serve in Colonel John Daggett's 4th Bristol County Regiment, and he 
served seventeen days at Rhode Island. From June to August 1780 he served 
as Major-Commandant of the 4th Suffolk County Regiment on the 
Rhode Island alarm. November 27, 17S0 he was chosen by ballot in the 
House of Representatives, Muster Master for Suffolk County. 


CAPTAIN SAMUEL COBB of Mendon (also given Holliston) was 
born about 1737. As a resident of the latter place he enlisted, May 2. 1758 
in Captain Cox's Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment. From April 
oth to November 14, 1762 he was a Sergeant in Captain Ebenezer Cox's 
Company. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as L 
tenant in Captain William Jennison's Company of Minute Men. April 
22, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's regiment 
and served through the year. In a certificate sworn to April 25, ISIS he 
stated that he had served during 1775 as above reported and that he left 
the army in the early part of January 1776. He declared that his age on 
the date of the certificate was 81 years and that he was in need of assistance. 
He died in Holliston December 20, 1S22 at the age of 85 years. 

CAPTAIN MOSES KNAP, son of .Moses and Patience Knap was 
born in Norton, December 9, 1743. In 1757 he was a private in Colonel 
Ephraim Leonard's 2nd Norton Company. From April 6, 1759 until July 
26, 1760 he served in Captain Jonathan Eddy's Company, Colonel Frye's 
Regiment, at Fort Cumberland and Nova Scotia. From June 3rd to De- 
ember 26, 1761 he served as private in Captain Lemuel Bent's Company. 
On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he was Sergeant in Captain Abial 
Clap's Company of Minute Men in Colonel John Daggett's Regiment. 
April 27, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Reg- 
iment and he served through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in 
Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1. 
1777 he became Captain in Colonel William Shepard's 4th Regiment Mass - 
chusetts Line. November 5, 177S he was promoted to the rank oi Major 
in Colonel Benjamin Tupper's 11th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. Jan- 
uary 1, 1781 he was transferred to the 10th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, 
then under command of Colonel Benjamin Tupper, who had been trans- 
ferred on the same date from the 11th Regiment. In January 17S3 lie was 
transferred to the 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, under command of 
Lieutenant Colonel David Cobb and he served until June 12. 17S3. lie 


was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. He died 
November 7, 1809. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL PAYSON of Stoughtonham was born about 
1735. As a resident of Stoughton he was a private in Major Stephen Miller's 
Company, Colonel Josiah Brown's Regiment on a Crown Point expedition, 
September 29, 1755. From September 15th to December 14, 1755 he was 
in Captain Joseph Bent's Company in the Crown Point expedition, prob- 
ably under Major Stephen Miller. From March 29th to October 17, 1756 
he served in Major Stephen Miller's Company, Colonel Bagley's Regiment 
on a Fort William Henry alarm and his age at this time was given as 21, 
and his residence and birthplace as Stoughton. From April 4th to June 
24, 1758 he was a sentinel in Captain Samuel Billings's Company, Colonel 
Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. He was a private in Captain Timothy Ham- 
mond's Company from March 22nd to November 16, 1762. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he was Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 
Regiment of Minute Men. April 27, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in 
Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment and he served through the year. Dur- 
ing 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment Conti- 
nental Arm}'. No further record of his service has been found. 

CAPTAIN ANDREW PETERS of Mendon was born in Medfield 
January 24, 1742. From March 12th to December 5, 1760 he was a pri- 
vate in Captain Timothy Hamant's Company, and is described as "servant 
to Adm. Peters." He responded to the Lexington alarm of April 19. 177-3 
as a member of Captain John Albee's 1st Mendon Company, which marched 
to Roxbury. April 26, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph 
Read's Regiment and served through the year. During 1776 ho was aC - 
tain in Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. Jan- 
uary 1, 1777 he was commissioned Major in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd 1! g- 
iment, Massachusetts Line. July 1, 1779 he was appointed Lieutenant 
Colonel in Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment, receiving his commission 
November 26th of that year. He served in this rank until January 1. 17S1. 


He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. He 
died at Westborough, February 5, 1822. 

CAPTAIN OLIVER POXD of Wrentham, son of Ephraim, Junior 
and Michal Pond, was born about 173S. From March 27th to May 23. 
175S he was a member of Captain Ebenczer Cox's Company, in Colonel 
Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. March 28, 1759 at the age of twenty- 
he enlisted in Colonel Samuel Miller's Regiment. A note in this conne f * 
states that he was at Lake George in 175S. From March 28, 1759 to July 
22, 1760, he was Sergeant in Captain Moses Curtis's Company in N 
Scotia (or what is now St. John, X. B.) In 1771 he was Ensign in Captain 
John Smith's (Wrentham) Company, Colonel Nathaniel Hatch's 3rd S - 
folk County Regiment. He commanded a company of Minute Men which 
marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 27, 1775 he was 
engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served 
through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's 
13th Regiment, Continental Army. "General Oliver Pond" died in Wren- 
tham, November 8, 1822, aged 85 years, "a Revolutionary officer." 

CAPTAIN EDWARD SEAGRAVE of Uxbridge was born in Eng- 
land in 1722, son of John Seagrave. From December 17, 1755 to Decem- 
ber 18, 1756, he was a member of Captain Andrew Dalrymple's Company, 
Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. Previous to joining this company 
he had been a member of Captain Taft's Company on Colonel Williams's 
Regiment. From March 29th to November 9, 175S he was a Sergeant 
in Captain Andrew Dalrymple's Company, Colonel Jedediah Preble's R< g- 
iment. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Read's Company oi 
Militia which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 
26, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment. 
and served through the year. During the 1776 he was Captain in Col 
Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. June 19, 177S he was 
engaged as Captain in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment, and served 


twenty-one days at Rhode Island. In 1779 he was Captain of the 2nd Ux- 
bridge Company in Colonel Ezra Woods's 3rd Worcester County Regiment, 
but owing to the infirmities of age he asked leave to resign his commission 

and his resignation was accepted in Council, December 17. 1779. On the 
Rhode Island alarm in the summer of 17S0 he served as a private from July 
28th to August 7th, marching to Tiverton, R. I., and back. He was offered 
a colonelcy for bravery at White Plains, N. Y. ; but declined. He died in 
Uxbridge May, 1793. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL WARREX of Mendon was the son of Samuel 

and Tabitha (Stone) Warren, and was born in Grafton. April 20. 1733. He 
was a private in Captain Thomas Wiswall's 3rd Mendon Company (alarm 
list) March 23, 1757. He marched from Mendon to Westfield in Captain 
Phineas Lovett's Company, Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment on the 
Fort William Henry alarm. From Ma} r 2nd to May 24, 1758 he was a mem- 
ber of Captain Nathan Tyler, Junior's company, in Colonel William Wil- 
liams's Regiment. He marched as a private in Captain William Jennison's 
Company of Minute Men on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775. 
April 26, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's Regi- 
ment and he served through the year. After the Revolution he held many 
responsible offices in Milford. 

Corporal in Captain William Thayer's 2nd Company of Militia of Mendon 
as shown by the list dated March 28, 1757. Another list shows similar 
service in March 1758. He was Ensign in Captain Joseph Daniels's (3rd^ 
Company which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 to Rox- 
bury. April 26, 1775 he enlisted in the Army and was made First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Andrew Peter's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's Reg- 
iment. He served through the year. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSEPH CODY of Mendon was the son of 
Isaac and Hannah Cody. He was born in Hopkinton May 2. 1730. He 


was a sentinel in Captain John Jones's Company from April 5th to X 
14, 1755, on a Crown Point Expedition. The name of Samuel Warren was 
given as his "father or master." On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
as a resident of Mendon he marched as Sergeant in Captain Gershom Nel- 
son's Compay. April 26, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in 
Captain Samuel Warren's Company, Colonel Joseph Read'.- Regiment, 
and lie served through the year. After the war he lived in Milford and 
was a carpenter by occupation. 

about 1735. He was the son of SamUel and Experience (Adams) Daniels. 
From April 2nd to November 27, 1759 he was a private in Captain John 
Nixon's Company, Colonel John Jones's Regiment, on a Crown Point ex- 
pedition. He was a private in Captain Ebenezer Cox's Company from 
April 5 H th to November 14, 1762. April 27, 1775 he was engaged as First 
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Cobb's Company, Colonel Joseph R- 
Regiment, and he served through the year. In 177G he was First Lieuten- 
ant in Captain Samuel Warren's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Reg- 
iment, Continental Army. January 1,' 1777 he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He served 
until June 3, 17S3, the end of the war. He died in Holliston, March 
3, 1S05, aged 67 years. 


youngest son of Joseph and Mary Farrer. He was born in 1730. He was 
a sentinel in Captain Andrew Dalrymple's Company on a Crown Point 
expedition in 1755. In 1757 he marched from Upton to West field on the 
Fort William Henry alarm, as a private in Lieutenant James Whipple's 
Company, Colonel Artemas Ward's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775 he was Lieutenant in Captain Stephen Sadler's Company, 
Colonel Wheelock's Regiment. April 26, 1775 lie was engaged as First 
Lieutenant in Captain David Batcheldor's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's 
regiment and he served through the year. December S, 1776 lie marched 


on a Rhode Island alarm as Captain in Lieutenant Colonel Nathan Tyler's 
3rd Worcester County Regiment,, and served until January 21, 1777. June 
17, 1779 he was commissioned First Major in the 3rd Worcester County 
Regiment. June 26, 17S0 he was engaged as Major in Colonel John Rand's 
Sth Worcester County Regiment, and served until October 11th of that 
year. He was a carpenter by occupation. He died in Upton March 2, 
1S07, aged 76 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOB KNAP of Douglas was born in 1740 
the son of Seth Knap. April 27, 1757 he was a member of Lieutenant Col- 
onel Samuel White's 1st Taunton Company, his name appearing in a train- 
ing band list. In the summer of 1757 he was a private in Captain Ebenezer 
Dean's Company in Colonel Ephraim Leonard's Regiment on the Fort 
William Henry alarm. April 4th to September 13th, 175S he was a pri- 
vate in Captain James Andrews's Company, Colonel Thomas Doty's Reg- 
iment. From April 28th to December S, 1759 he was a Sergeant in Cap- 
tain Thomas Cobb's Company on a Crown Point expedition. May 1, 1775 
he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Edward Scagrave's Com- 
pany, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and served through the year. July 
9, 1776 he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Martin's 
4th Company, Colonel Ezra Wood's 3rd Worcester County Regiment. From 
August 14th to November 29, 1777, he was a Captain in Colonel Job Cush- 
ing's Regiment, serving at the Northward. September 7, 1779 he was com- 
missioned Captain of the 4th Company in Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3rd Wor- 
cester County Regiment. July 27, 17S0 he entered service again in the 
same regiment, and served fifteen days on a Rhode Island alarm. From 
March 2nd to March 15, 1781 he again served as Captain in command of a 
company at Rhode Island. He died in Douglas, May 26. 17S6. aged 46 

April 22, to November 15, 175S he was a Sergeant in Captain Samuel Bill- 
ing's Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, having seen pre- 


fious service in Colonel Miller's Regiment. On the Lexington ahum of A 
19, 1775 he served as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Parson's < 
pany, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment of Minute Men. April 27. 177.', 
he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Paysons C< 
Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served through the year. M 
22, 1776 he marched from Stoughtonham to Braintree as Lieutenant in 
Captain Edward Bridge Savell's Company, Colonel Benjamin Gill's 
Suffolk County Regiment, serving two days. In a company return dal 
Camp at Ticonderoga, August 27, 177G, his name appears as First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Louis Whiting's Company, Colonel Ephraim Wheeloek's 
4th Suffolk County Regiment. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SIMEON LEACH of Stoughton was born about 
1734. In a list dated, Stoughton, April 1, 1757, his name appears as a prival 
Captain Theophilus Curtis's Company, Colonel Miller's Regiment. 1" 
March 3rd to October 13, 175S he was a Corporal in Captain Simeon Ci 
Company, Colonel Thomas Doty's Regiment. April 2. 1759, he enlisted 
in Captain Thomas Clapp's Regiment, his age being given as 25 years. From 
April 2nd to November 1, 1759 he was a Sergeant in Captain Lemuel Dun- 
bar's Company, Colonel John Thomas's Regiment at Halifax. He si r 
as Sergeant in Captain Lemuel Dunbar's Company, Colonel Thy] . s 
Regiment at Nova Scotia from January 1st to December 16. 1760. I": 
May 6th to December 7, 1761, he held the same rank under the same Cap- 
tain. He was First Lieutenant in Captain William Briggs's Company 
Minute Men of the Lexington alarm of April 10. 1775. May 1, 1775 he- 
was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain William Briggs's Company in 
Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment and served through the year. March 
23, 1776 he was commissioned Captain of the 10th Company in C 
Benjamin Gill's 3rd Suffolk County Regiment. 

tham was born about 173S. He was the son of Ebenezer Messenger. In 
a list dated April 27, 1757, his name appears as a member of Captain 


Samuel Day's Company, in Colonel Miller's Regiment. March 26, 175S 
he enlisted in Colonel Samuel Miller's Regiment, for service at Lake George. 

He was First Lieutenant in -Captain Oliver Pond's Company of Minute 
Men on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 27. 1775 he was en- 
gaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Oliver Pond's Company, Colonel 
Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served until his discharge by General Wash- 
ington, July 8, 1775. On a Rhode Island alarm in December 177G he served 
for eight days in Captain Lemuel Kollock's Company, Colonel Ephraim 
Whcelock's Regiment. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THOMAS PETTEE of Walpole, was the son of 
Samuel and Eleza Pettee and was born in Walpole, October 15. 1740. 
He was in all probability, the man of this name who was a private in Cap- 
tain Cox's Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment, in October, 1758, the 
return being sworn to at Wrentham, February 3, 1759. On the Lexing- 
ton alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Sergeant in Captain Seth Bullard's 
Company of Militia, Colonel John Smith's Regiment. May 1. 1775 he 
was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Seth Bullard's Company, Col- 
onel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served through the year. From Feb- 
uary 1st to Ma}' 8, 1777 he was Lieutenant in Captain Perez Cushing's Com- 
pany, Colonel Craft's Artillery Regiment, and from July lGth to August 
21, 1777 he held the same rank in Captain Sabin Mann's Company, Col- 
onel Thomas Carpenter's 1st Bristol County Regiment, on a Rhode Island 
alarm. September 23, 1777 he was chosen First Lieutenant in Captain 
Samuel Fisher's North Company of Wrentham in Colonel Benjamin Hawkcss 
4th Suffolk Count} r Regiment, his commission being dated September 27th 
of that year. 

Sergeant in Captain Abial Clapp's Company of Minute Men in Colonel 
John Daggett's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775. April 
27, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Moses Knap's Com- 
pany, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, arid served through the year. 



son of James and Mercy (Man) Bacon. He was born in Wrentham, Feb- 
uary 6, 1742-3. From March 12th to December 4, 1760, lie was a prr 

in Captain Ebenezer Cox's Company. He served as Sergeant in Captain 
Oliver Pond's Company which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775. April 27, 1775 he enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Colonel Jo- 
seph Read's Regiment and served through the year. During 177G he was 
First Lieutenant in Captain Oliver Pond's Company, Colonel Joseph R( 
13th Regiment, Continental Army. "Captain Elias Bacon" died in Wren- 
tham, July 20, 1728, aged S6 years. 

was born about 1728. April 8, 1757 he was a member of the alarm list in 
Captain Joseph Capron's 2nd Attleborough Company. From June 17th 
to December 28, 1761 at the age of thirty-three years, he was a private in 
Captain Lemuel Bent's "Attleberry" Company. He was probably the 
man of that name who served as a private in Captain Stephen Richard's 
Company of Minute Men which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775. April 27, 1775 he enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain Moses 
Knap's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and served through 
the year. » 

born about 1731. March 28, 1757 he was a member of Captain William Thay- 
er's 2nd Mendon Company. April 6, 1759, as a resident of Mendon, aged 
28 years, he enlisted in Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment for the invasion 
of Canada. He marched as Sergeant in Captain Joseph Daniels's 3rd Men- 
don Company on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26. 1775 
he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Andrew Peter's Com- 
pany, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and served through the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT AMOS ELLIS of Bellingham was engaged 
May 27, 1775 to serve in that rank in Captain Samuel Cobb's Company, Col- 


onel Joseph Head's Regiment, and he continued in that organization thr< 
the year. September 27, 1777 he was commissioned Captain of the 4th 
Bellingham Company, in Colonel Benjamin Hawes 4th Suffolk County 
Regiment of Militia, and served until October 21st of that year in a Rhode- 
Island campaign. From July 26th to August 23, 177S he again saw ser- 
vice in the same rank in that regiment in Rhode Island. He served as Cap- 
tain in the same Regiment under Major Seth Bullard from July 27th to 
August 7, 17S0, also at Rhode Island with Captain Samuel Fisher. Accord- 
ing to a return made by Captain Sabin Mann, he commanded a body of 
officers and men detached from Companies in Colonel Seth Bullard'- Ra- 
iment, February 21, 1781. From March 2nd to 17th, 17S1, he was Cap- 
tain in Colonel Isaac Dean's Regiment, sixteen days at Rhode Island. 
Captain Amos Ellis died in Bellingham, May 30, 1S17. 

born about 1741. He enlisted April 4, 175S in Captain Samuel Billings's 
Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, having previously seen 
service in Colonel Miller's Regiment. His place of residence was given 
as Stoughton, and he served until June 24th. From May 24, 1761 to Jan- 
uary 6, 1762 he was a corporal in Captain Timothy Hamant's Company. 
April 27, 1775 he enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Payson's 
Company, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and served through the year. 
March 4, 1776 he marched on an alarm as a private in Captain Edward 
Bridge Savell's Stoughton Company, in Colonel Benjamin Gill's 3rd Suf- 
folk County Regiment. His name also appeared on a company return 
of Captain Lewis Whiting's Company, Colonel Ephraim YVheelock's 4th 
Suffolk County Regiment, said return dated Ticonderoga, October 27. 1770. 
His age at this time is given as 33 years and residence Stoughton. 


the son of Simon and Ruth (Morse) Plympton. He was a wheelwright 
by trade. He was born in the above town, June 7, 1748. On the Lexing- 
ton alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as private in Captain Sabin Mann's 


Company, Colonel John Greatoirs Regiment. May 1, 1775 ho 

as Second Lieutenant in Captain Seth Bullard's Company, and 

through the year. During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant in Ca I 

Pond's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Contin< q1 

September 27, 1777 he was commissioned Captain of the 1st M< 

pany in Colonel Benjamin Hawes's 4th Suffolk County Regiment, and he 

served until October 28th on a secret expedition to Rhode Island. : 

ember 3, 1777 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Eleazer Bi ks's 

3rd Middlesex County Regiment, and he served until December 121 

he was succeeded in command of the company by Captain Moses Adams. 

He died January 2, 1817. 


ton served first as a private in Captain William Briggs's Company - f Min- 
ute Men on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 1, 1775 he 
engaged as Second Lieutenant under the same Captain in Colonel J< - 
Read's Regiment, and served through the year. April 1, 1770 his nj n 
appears in a list of commissioned officers in Colonel Lemuel Robinsons 
January-April 1776 Regiment, as Captain. No further record of ser 
has been found. 

geant in Captain Joseph Chapin's Company of Minute Men on the I. \- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26, 1775 he was engaged as S 
Lieutenant in Captain Edward Seagrave's Company, Colonel Jos R ad's 

Regiment, and served through the year. During 1776 he was First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Moses Knap's Company, Colonel Joseph Read's 13th R< g- 
iment, Continental Army. 

April 26, 1775 to hold that rank in Captain David Batcheldor's C< 
Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served through the year. He < 
probably the man referred to in one or more record- oi service as Li< uten; 


later in the war, but the fact that the town from which these men came 
was not mentioned, and the number of such men serving, makes it impos- 
sible to distinguish them. 

engaged April 26, 1775 as Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Warren's Com- 
pany, Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment, and he served through the year. 
During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant in Captain Andrew Peter's Company, 
Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. No further 
record of service has been found. 

/ ~]~ A HERE is sound reason to believe that the genius of man has not 
progressed in the last 1C00 years. 

Giving due recognition to the electric telegraph, telephone, n. I - 
light and radiograph; the steam propelled locomotive, ship and factory w • 
the aeroplane, sea-plane and submarine; and the boasted discoveries in 
medicine and surgery — it still remains true that the three greatest : 
of all time lived their immortal lives 300, 600 and 2000 years ago. There 
is not a poet alive today, nor one who died yesterday, whose work we ex- 
pect to live and become known with Homer the Grecian, who lived 7 
years B. C, Dante the Italian who died in 1321, or Shakespeare the E g- 
lishman who died in 1616. In sculpture it is the work of the Greeks: Phidias, 
Alcamenes, Scopas, and Praxiteles, whose representations of the human 
form are still the tantilization of the world. In architecture stud?nts 
the subject declare there has been no new idea for centuries — ev< 
is an adaptation or an imitation of the creative works of earlier race-. The 
Cathedral of St. Sophia at Constantinople built before 600 A. D., St. Pel r's 
at Rome built in 1400 and 1500 A. D., and the Temple of Karnak in Egypt 
begun about 2700 B. C., are still considered the greatest buildings erected by 
man. In painting the greatest masters are among the ancients — Raphael, 
Michael Angelo, Rembrandt and others. 

Mechanical invention and discovery are the great achievement- of our 
age, but to say that they indicate progress in the creative genius o\ man- 
kind, is a claim open to serious doubt. 



' I V HAT Christian ideals arc advancing, and have advanced marvel 

in the past 100 and 200 years, is a fact, however, which we do not believe 

admits of serious dispute. That men are more charitable, more tolei ." 
more honest, more virtuous and endeavor to live up to higher ethical 
ards than they did one generation, two generations or ten generations 
appears to us to be true. 

Therefore it is with particular pleasure that we print in another column, 
the article by Raymond B. Fosdick, on "The Good Old Day-." 

Here in America, and particularly here in New England, there is con- 
tinual criticism of business methods and political chicanery, of the insincerity 
and affectation of society; and lament about the deterioration of the ti:. 

But a peek or two into the past, ought to convince the most cyi 
and pessimistic that if things are bad today, they were worse in the past; 
that we have really progressed; and that the criticism of today i< merely 
the working of the yeast which is going to make tomorrow better still than 
today. Any minister, any priest, any prude, or sentimentalist who can- 
not see it, lacks capacity to interpret the meaning of history, and the in g- 
ination to see present day criticism in relation to the future. 

This article of Mr. Fosdiek's shows clearly that with all our graft and 
corruption in politics and business, and the strident publicity concerning 
these evils, there is improvement — vast improvement — over what went 

A STRIKING evidence of the greater toleration of this age is found in 
^ *- enhanced respect for human life today. At the beginning of this 
century the English law recognized over 200 capital offences. Not • 
was a man immediately hung if he committed arson, burglary, felonious 
assault, rape, or treason, but if he wrote a threatening loiter to extort 
money, if he shot at rabbits, if he committed a theft amounting to the -hil- 
lings, if he appeared in disguise on a public street, — if he committed any 
of these or 200 odd other misdemeanors or crimes he was immediately hung. 
The "rights of man" have been enormously increased in the last century. 


\X T E have had many orders for back copies of this magaiine for April, 

1915,, in which there appeared an article by Rev. Thomas Franklin Wal 
on "Church Troubles in Ye Olden Time.'' which was a startling revelation 

to those who complain that reverence and godliness have declined in I 
age. We would not have dared to print this article from the hand of a 
known author, but Mr. Waters is one ol the most careful and compel 
torical investigators in Massachusetts, and a pastor who has given i: 
years of service to the church. Yet he tells us of a drunken parson | 
ing service, of boys using their fists on each other, spitting in each 1 I 
faces, breaking the glass windows, and other coarse disorderly conduct in 
church never heard of or dreamed of in our day. Church statistics tell 
us, also, that not one in fourteen of the population attended church ICO y 
ago; one in four is todav a church communicant. 

T JV to the year 1914 it was quite common place to hear that cour 
^ and valor were declining. Wars of the future would not call for phy- 
sical courage. The heroic age was past. England was a decayed nation, 
France a sterile, one, etc. Whatever conclusion one may come to about 
the present greatest conflict at arms known in history; however discouraged 
one may be as to its final influence on mankind and civilization — no one 
today will say that men have lost their courage to face death and die. 

, E hear much in the "society" gossip about wine drinking and dis 


pation of men and women; someone says "I don't know what the world 
is coming to," and we conclude it must be going bad: statistics gathered 
on the subject prove that the consumption of breweries and distilleru >' g 
is on the increase. All these thing> and much more besides are dinned into 
our intelligence by the headlines in the newspapers. No one takes the trouble 
to see how much the increased consumption is due to the habits oi our larg 
immigrant population, and their families. 


It is only by the testimony of our older men that we are occasionally 
reassured. In a speech on the occasion of his birthday recently Chauneey 
M. Depew, speaking of his youth, said: 

"At that time temperance was unknown. It was an insult to refuse 
to drink. Most of the public men whom I met in the legislature died from 

T OOKIXG back a little further if we would see the drunkenness and de- 
■*^ pravity existing in some parts of America at the time Charles Dick 
visited this country, let one reread "Martin Chuzzlewit." 

If we would look backward further still we can go to sturdy old Dr. 
Samuel Johnson's time and find that he remembered "all the decent people 
of Lichfield [where he was born in 1709] getting drunk every night" and 
during his time "the most honoured and feared of English Prime Ministers 
could appear intoxicated in the House of Commons itself." 

Ex-President Roosevelt in his recent book, "A Book-lover's Holidays 
in the Open," from the press last month, points out other books one can read 
to this same purpose. He says: 

"If any executive grows exasperated over the shortcomings of the leg- 
islative body with which he deals, let him study Maoauley's account of 
the way William was treated by his parliaments as soon as the latter found 
that, thanks to his efforts, they were no longer in immediate danger from 
foreign foes; it is illuminating 

"If the attitude of this nation towards foreign affairs and military pre- 
paredness at the present day seems disheartening, a study of the first fif- 
teen years of the nineteenth century will at any rate give us whatever coin- 
fort we can extract from the fact that our great-grandfathers were no less 
foolish than we are. 

"Nor need any one confine himself solely to the affairs of the United 
States. If he becomes tempted to idealize the past, if sentimentalist- seek 
to persuade him that the 'ages of faith,' the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
for instance, were better than our own, let him read any trustworthy b< 
on the subject — Lear's 'History of the Inquisition,' for instance, or Coul- 


ton's abridgement of Salimbere's memoirs. He will be undeceived and 

will be devoutly thankful that his lot has been east in the present a^e, in 
spite of all its faults." 

/^\XEofthe largest factors in influencing us to this habitual state of self- 
^^^ depreciation is undoubtedly the resumes of crime and misdemeanor gar- 
nered in the four quarters of the globe each and every 24 hours by the elec- 
tric telegraph, and laid before us every morning by the diligent new-paper 
press. It takes a strong mind to repress the effect of this — and to realize 
that the proportion of ill-conduct is really very small, after all. We all 
have a vague feeling that New York is a very bad place. Every morning 
we read in the Gotham newspapers of some highway robbery and murder. 
We rarely stop to think that if the big city with its 5,000,000 souls, suffers 
two murders on her highways every day, 365 days in the year, it is no more 
in proportion than if a town of 3500 inhabitants had a similar occurrence 
once in two years. 

Dr. Minot J. Savage put the philosophy of this into a pregnant sentence 
a few .years ago when he said: 

"The trouble and sorrow of this world is tremendously over-estimat- 
ed, and the responsibility for this modern pessimism is largely due to the 
newspapers. The reason is that good conduct is not news." 


Colonel John Glover's Marblehead Regiment 
Colonel Win. Prescott's Minute. Men's Regiment 

Colonel Nathan Doolittle's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel Timothy Danielson's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel John Fellows's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel Ebenczer Bridges's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel Timothy Walker's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel Theophilus Cotton's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colonel James Frye's Minute Men's Regiment 

Colen°l Thomas Gardner's Minute Men's Regiment 

'Colonel Samuel Gerrish's Regiment 

Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment 

Colonel Willian Heath's and Colonel John Greaton's Regt. 

Colonel John Thomas's and Colonel John Bailey's Regiment 

Colonel John Paterson's Regiment 

Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent's Regiment 

Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment 

Colonel Asa Whit comb's Regiment 

Colonel John Nixon's Regiment 

General Artemas and Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiments 

Colonel Moses Little's Regiment 

Colonel Joseph Read's Regiment 



Published by the Salem PressCo.Salem.Mass.U.SA. 

®1jp iHassarljttspfis fflu#zzmt 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


Deerfield, Mass Salem, Mass. Salem, Mass. 


Bangor, Me. Salem, Mass. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, S2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 

NO. 3 JULY, 1916 VOL. IX 

(Cmtlruts uf tlita 3Jssar 

The Boston Athenaeum Library . . Agnes Edwards 

Exterior of Athen.eum — Illustration ..... 
Two Interior Views of Athen.^um — Illustration 
Church Discipline in Ye Olden Time . Ralph Mortimer Jones 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 
Criticism and Comment ........ 



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Entered as 8econd-cla«s matter, March 13, 1908, at the post-office, at Salem, Mass., under the Act of C i-.-cri.-*. 
of March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



By Agnes Edwards 

The Boston Athenaeum is one of the most beautiful, most dignified 
and most scholarly institutions in Boston. Its history is intimately con- 
nected with the literary life of New England for over one hundred years, 
and its associations are of the noblest. 

The stranger visiting the city, and permitted a glimpse into this ex- 
clusive spot, receives an impression of order, of well bred seriousness and 
high minded erudition: and, if he is at all conversant with Boston's ideals 
and achievements, he also feels something akin to a thrill as he stands upon 
this tradition weighted ground. The building itself is handsome, both in 
exterior and interior: the facade is classic: the vestibule spacious. With- 
in, the reading rooms — the one on the fifth floor is ninety feet long and thirty- 
five feet wide, well lighted from both North and South— the rest rooms, 
the catalogue rooms, the art rooms, and the smaller conveniences, such as a 
dark room for photographers, a lunch room, a tea room, where you may net 
a pleasant and social cup for three cents — combine comfort and architectural 
harmony. In the rear stretches the Granary Burial Ground, where lie 
the generation painted by Copley: to the East shimmers the Bay: to the 



West rises Blue Hill, and in front, passing the very door, run- Beacon Street, 
the most characteristic of Boston thoroughfares. 

But it is not the building itself — impressive though it is: it is not even the 
remarkably fine collection of books, magazines, pamphlet-, documents and 
works of art which makes the Athenaeum unique. What it has -rood for 
in the past, and what it stands for today — while it includes all material suc- 
cesses, includes something more subtle and more vital. The Athenaeum has 
been the center of Boston's intellectual existence for over a century, and 
maintains today, as it did a hundred years ago, its prestige and distinction. 

The building on Beacon Street — mellowed as it is by age and usage — 
is not the original home of the library by any means. When, in 1805, the 
Anthology Society of Boston voted ''that a library of periodical publications 
be instituted for the use of the Society," and when, by January, 1S07 the 
new enterprise, with a hundred and sixty subscribers and several hundred 
books, announced its organization, the rooms were in Joy's Buildings on 
Congress Street. A month later, when the library was incorporated as 
the Boston Athenaeum, modeled upon lines similar to the Athenaeum and 
Lyceum of Liverpool, a hundred and fifty shares of stock at S300 a share 
were sold, and the rooms were changed to Scollay's Buildings, Tremont 
Street. In 1822 felicitous circumstances made it possible for its removal 
into the stately mansion house of James Perkins ou Pearl Street. In 1847 
the corner stone for the present building was laid: and two years ago. this 
was reconstructed and enlarged to its present gracious and commodious 

Meanwhile the famous heritage of distinguished support has been most 
preciously preserved. From its very beginning it has engaged the interest 
of men of repute. Its founders, its trustees, its benefactors ami its pro- 
prietors include names honorable forever in the annals of America. The- 
ophilus Parsons, John Lowell and Josiah Quincy were the first presidents: 
Charles Sumner, Edward Everett, Rufus Choate, William Eliery Channing 
and James Freeman Clarke were all frequenters of its quiet corridors. Em- 
erson, Holmes and Hawthorne's names are still down on the record books: 

■ '■•:,■. 




1 — 


m ~j i ■ - ; 



Home of the Boston" Athkx.kum 
10 Beacon Street 


and from the walls smiles a portrait of Hannah Adams, the first woman 
admitted to the privileges of the place. Rut although mementoes of the 
early days are cherished reverently, yet the institution has endured, not 
because of its past, but because of its wise policy of progression. It has 
always endeavored to serve the needs of the present generation. Accord- 
ingly, when there was no Art Museum in the city, it provided one. V, 
the Museum of Fine Arts was established, the Athenaeum resigned that branch 
of its activities. When special libraries of law, or medicine or theology h 
languished, the Athenaeum has absorbed them. As they have been i 
tablished, it has contributed to them, instead of competing against them. 

Its original object — of collecting pamphlets and magazines and news- 
papers not for circulation but for reference only, has been permitted to ex- 
pand freely. Xow proprietors — of whom there are about eight hundred 
who are active, and their guests may draw outdjooks as in a public library, 
and on as many varied subjects. 

There are several special collections 'here which deserve attention — 
the most significant and valuable being the Washingtoniana. However. 
we will reserve that for the end, and briefly mention, first, some of the others, 

Ot the works of the poet Byron, bought from Mr. J. W. Bouton in 1S^5, 
there arc almost three hundred volumes and forty-six pamphlets, many 
of them first editions. 

Confederate Literature is represented by books and newspapers, pub- 
lished in the Southern States during the Civil War, to illustrate the s 
and economic conditions of the time. This collection including medical 
and military works, school books, time tables, novels with wall paper covers 
and good files of periodicals, is one of the largest of its kind in the world. 

Complete files (for the years indicated) of the following Southern news- 
papers, are now in possession of the Athenaeum. It is one of the most 
extensive collections in existence of Civil War newspapers representing the 
Confederacy. It is equalled or excelled only by those of the Library of Con- 
gress, the Yale University Library, the Pennsylvania Historical Society, the 
American Antiquarian Society, at Worcester, and the New York Fublic Library 




- - 


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ilJ^fe&J ,*£! 

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The collection is being enlarged by additional purchases every year. (The 
small dash between the figures indicate that the files are complete for the 
intervening years. Thus, the files of the Baltimore Patriot are complete for 
a period of forty-six years: 1814-1 8G0.) 

Atchison, (Kansas) 
Atlanta, (Ga.) 

Augusta, (Ga.) 

Baltimore, (Md.] 

Kansas Zeitunn, 1857-8 
Commonwealth, 1861-62 
Southern Confederacy 

Daily Intelligencer, 1SG1, 

'62, '64, '65 
Weekly Intelligencer 1SG1 

Feb. -Oct. 
Daily Constitutionalist. 

.Daily Register, 1S64 
Southern Field and Fire- 
side, 1S64 
Chronicle and Sentinel. 

1862, 1863. 1SG4-5 
Gazette and Maryland, 

news sheet, 1861-65 
Niks Weekly Register, 

North American, 1S0S, 

Patriot, 1814-60 
Weekly Patriot, 1S55-53, 

Advertiser, 1S0G-S 
American. 1864-76 
Am. Farmer, 1819-27 
Daily Exchange, 1S5S-G0, 

Federal Intelligencer, 1795 
Federal Republican, 1809, 

1810 1817, ISIS 
Carolina Gazette, 1S29, 

Courier, 1803-8, 1832-39, 

1343-44, 1S54. 1855, 

1S6 1-64, Jan. 4 to Feb. 

9, 1865, and Apr. 15, 

to end of year, 1866-71 
Mercury, 1S57-65 
News, 18G9 
Republican, Aug. -Dec, 

Mercury, tri-weekly, 

1861, '62, '64 
Chattanooga, {Term) Daily Rebel, 186 4 
Columbia, (S. C.) Daily South Carolinian, 


Charleston, (S.C.) 

Columbus, (Ga.) 


Galveston, (Tex.) 
Georgetown, (D. C 

Goldsboro, (X. C.) 
Greensborough, X. 

Houston, (Tex.; 
Knoxville, (Tenn.) 

Lexington, (Ky.) 
Louisville, (Ky.) 

Lynchburg, (Ya.) 

Macon, CGa.) 

Memphis, (Tenn.) 

Mobile, (Ala.) 

Montgomery, (Ala 

Nashville, (Tenn.) 

Nashville, (Tenn.) 

New Berne, (X. C 

Daily Southern Gun 

Is.; i 

Daily S in, 1864/65 
Tinas, 1864 1865 
Misc. pap n 1865-6 I 
\Vt iy Xi -. 1863 
.) Washington Federalist, 

Daily S'aU J own . 1864 
('. Patriot, 1864 
Tri-wa kly A'» vs, LS I 
Army Mail Bag, 
Daily Boil. ■■>.. L864 
Kentucky Statesman 
Journal. 1S63- 75 
Couch'--.] 3-75 

Republican, l v 
Virginian, 1864 
Daily Conj LS64 

Southern Con' 

1864, 1865 
Daily Telegraph and Con- 

fedt raU , I s '••"> 
Tri-weekly Tele praph, 

Daily Host, 1866 
Daily App at, 1863- 
Daily Morning Bulletin, 

Evenin ; X 18 
Evening Telegraph . > 
Mobile D \Uy T . 

1863— '65 
Mobil' Arm / .' i 1 

Crisis, 1864- ' 
Mobile Daily N- . . 1863 
Mobile A . iiser and 

/;• • - -. 1863 65 
Reg ■ •« ,18 £-75 
'/): .'.• .1 I ertis \ 18 

Mon ' Mail 

1864, 1865 
Patri ■' LS61 
Despatch, 1864r-65 
I . 1863-66 

) North Carolina Ti 



1 2 r 

New Echota 
New Orleans, (La.) 

Norfolk, (Va.) 
Petersburg, (Va.) 

Raleigh, (N. C.) 

Richmond, (Va.) 

(Ga.) Cherokee Phoenix, 1828- 

Commercial Bulletin, 1S09 
Delta, 1861, 1862, 1865 
Picayune, 1S62. 1S69 
Republican, 1S69 
Times, 1869 
Newspapers, 1860-65 
Bee, 1862 
Uabeilk, 1S62 
Zfai'Zy Crescent, 1861 
Journal, 1S69 
iVew Regime, 1864 
Christian Sun, 1864 
Dj% Register, 1864 
Express, 1863, 1864, 1S69 
Znfc, 1S69 

Daily Confederate, 1S64 
/)«% Conservative, 1864 
Weekly Conservative. 1864 
North Carolina Standard, 

Da% Progress, 1S64 
Despatch, 1S61, 1863-65' 

Confederate States Med- 
ical and Surgical jour- 
nal, 1864 
Enauirer, 1817-18. 1828- 
29, 1861-61, 1868-71, 
Examiner, 1861-65 
Magnolia Weekly, 1862- 

Republic, 1865 
Southern Illustrated News 

Southern Punch, 1863-4 
State Journal. 1869 
JF/»i? f 1861-65, 1869 
Central Presbyterian, 1864 

Savannah, (Ga.) Savanna) Daily Ma 

Nem . Jan. 5, 1^,1- 
Apr.27, 1864 
Adrerti* -. ISG9, 187-1-75 
Republic in, 1861-73, 
Selma, (Miss.) Evening D paid 186-1 

Selma Morning M 

ippian 1864 
Selma Evening Rt 
St. Louis, (Mo.) 7)a//// Countersign. IS&l 
Globs (See Missouri Dem- 
Missouri Democrat, 1863- 

Missouri Republican . 
Tallahassee, (Fla.) Floridian and Journal, 

Texas Miscellaneous copi 

Vicksburgh, (Miss.) Citizen, 1863 
Washington (D. C..) National Era. 1848-58 
National Gov. Journal . 

National In:-. \ 
J 80 1-68 
National Republican. 

1862, 1863. 1866, IS6S 
Orphans Advocate. IS< 6 
Spirit of Seven! fSix,lSl - 

Banner of the Constitution. 

United Stales Teli 

Chronicle, 1864-76 
£>a>7y GZo&e, 1840. 1835- 

ExiraGlol*:, 18 41 
Gcizc't>\ 1822 
Wilmington, (Del.) Daily Journal, l v o2. ISC I 

There is an unusually complete collection of first editions of Em rs 
Hawthorne, Holmes, Longfellow, Lowell, Thoreau, and Whit tier. 

Nearly complete files of every Boston Newspaper published from 1690 
to 1790 are preserved in remarkably good condition. 

The library given to King's Chapel in Boston by William III. in 1698 
has been in the custody of the Athenaeum since 1S23. It is the oldest col- 
lection of books in New England, and illustrates the literary taste of a >> I - 
arly man during the first century of life in the English Colonies. 


The Athenaeum possesses an excellent set of early American documents, 
based in part upon the collections of John Adams and John Quincy Adams. 
The first fourteen Congresses are especially well represented through an 
exchange with the War Department and the Library of Congress. 

The Collection of International Law material — including state papers 
of the chief countries of the world, with series of treaties and many mono- 
graphs and memoirs relating to subjects in International Law is supposed 
to be the best in America outside of "Washington. 

Another extremely interesting bookcase is filled with Gypsy Liter- 
ature. It is chiefly composed of books from the estate of Mr. Francis Hindes 
Groome of Edinburgh, one of the foremost authorities in the world in this 
subject. It comprises over a hundred volumes, and contains also tracts 
and magazine articles: Mr. GTroome's own books with marginal additions: 
over thirty volumes of manuscript notes, lectures, etc.: and his correspond- 
ence with M. Paul Bataillard, the eminent French student ol the Gypsies, 
covering the years 1872-1880. 

Of the manuscripts, there are some of especial antiquarian value. These 
include : 

The Ezekiel Price papers, with court, notarial and shipping records. 

Aspinwall's Notarial Records from 1641: to 1657. 

The Boston Record Commissioner's Reports and a Record of the County 
Court at Boston from 1671 to 1680. 

Le Forestier's Relation. 

Topliff's Travels. 

The large collection of broadsides includes many unique or rare ex- 
amples of the 17th or 18th centuries, with perhaps the best series now existing 
of Fast and Thanksgiving Day Proclamations, issued by the Governors 
of Massachusetts. 

A practically complete set of the Roxburghe Club publications treat- 
ing a wide variety of subjects, including art, history, literature, biography 
and archaeology. 

The Dreyfus Affair promised to throw such light on military, legal and 


social conditions in France, that virtually every volume relating to it pub- 
lished in France, and many others published in other countries, was acquired. 

There are over a thousand volumes illustrating the history of the Neth- 
erlands and Dutch Colonization. Also five contemporary pamphl< ts by 
and relating to Sir George Downing, a graduate in the first class at Har- 
vard and a representative of Cromwell and Charles I in the Netherlands. 

And now we come to the Washingtoniana — the most complete and 
valuable one of its kind in existence, and destined to become more and more 
so as the years go by. 

In a bookcase in the Trustees room — a bookcase which is an a!:., si 
exact reproduction of the one at Mount Vernon, stand — bound in the original 
covers in which he left them, most of the books which belonged to George 
Washington. There they stand — 384 volumes which were handled often 
by the Father of his Country, and others from the library of Bushrod Wash- 
ington. Many of the volumes bear the armorial book plate of the Presi- 
dent and his autograph: and the}' relate chiefly to agriculture and military 
science. Besides these volumes there are books and pamphlets and mono- 
graphs relating to him, so that the student may find here everything he needs 
for an exhaustive study of the man. 

The complete inventory of this library is published in book form, so 
it is possible for students to ascertain precisely what they can find here. 
While it is not possible to reprint such a book in its entirety in the Ma 
chusetts Magazine, nevertheless, a brief outline of the subjects covered and 
some mention of the most valuable volumes may be of interest to even the 
casual reader, as showing something of the taste and reading habits of the 
man whose all around development, as well as his special genius has made 
him a conspicuous figure in the history of the world. 

In the field of literature we find poems, essays and letters and biogr: 
©f a high order — although of limited number. There are a few of the foreign 
classics — such as the Italian Tragedy of Alfieri and Germanicus, (in French). 
The poetry is chiefly patriotic — the few novels are from standard writers. 
The essays are mostly on political or economic subjects. 


There is a very fair showing of periodicals— nearly all of them being 
of a serious nature, such as the American Museum, Christian Magazine, 
The Monthly and Critical Reviews (London), the Annual Register, which 
was a repository for the history, politics and literature of its time. 

The books of reference are of an entirely conventional order, including 
such works as Johnson's Dictionary. 

The dozen and a half religious works are solid enough: Barclay's Apologv, 
Berington's Mosaical Creation, Gilbert's Exposition of the Thirty nine 
Articles, etc. 

The books on Geography and Travel are rather more unusual: some 
are in French, as Warville's Voyage, and others seem tremendously old 
fashioned in their length — as Defoe's four volumes of a Tour through Great 

When we come to the Historical books, we find a decided tendency 
toward books on America and sections of America. Of course, we must 
remember that Washington was the recipient of many gifts, which would 
account for this preponderance of local histories. However^ there are enough 
of broader works, to indicate that the President was not narrow in his his- 
torical reading. 

When we come to the branches of Politics, Political Economy, etc.,, we 
find a more distinctive selection. Pryor's Documents, Coxe's View, Pat- 
ricius the Utilitist, various works in French on the History of Administration 
of Finances, Hazard's Collection of State Papers, etc., are still of intrinsic 
interest as well as of value because of their association. 

There are a few volumes on Legislation, such as the Parliamentary 
Register, and Debates, Congressional Register, and Sundry Pamphlets 
containing messages from the President to Congress. 

With the examination of Military works we find ourselves in what 
is, perhaps the most interesting of all. These books bear a look of more 
constant usage than any other in the library: Major William Young's Man- 
oeuvres is worn at the corners as though it had been often carried in a vest 
pocket. Thomas Hanson's extraordinary work on Prussian Evolutions, 
is also well thumbed. Washington was evidently not above study bag the 


German methods of warfare — point of singular interest in the light of pre- 
sent day developments. LeBlond's Engineer, Count Saxe's Plan for New- 
Modelling the French Army, Steuben's Regulations, and Otway's Art of 
War are others of the scant two dozen books on this subject. 

After the Military collection, the Agricultural is perhaps as indicative 
of Washington's personality as any other books in the library. This was 
the pastime he most loved, and it is pleasant to survey the volumes which 
were his companions in his less strenuous hours. Here we find four vol- 
umes of Anderson on Agriculture: Boswell on Meadows, Dundonald's Con- 
nection between Agriculture and Chemistry. The Farmer's Complete 
Guide, the Reports of the National Agricultural Society of Great Britain, 
the Gentleman Farmer, and couple of dozen more. 

These, and a dozen or so volumes of miscellaneous material and 750 
pamphlets make up the three fourths of the entire library which Wash- 
ington owned, and which the Athenaeum now possesses. The other fourth 
is scattered. Perhaps time will gradually bring them also to this happy 
spot. There certainly could be no safer and more congenial resting place 
for the library which once was assembled in Mount Vernon. 

One cannot leave the Athenaeum without a more detailed mention 
of its art department. It is not only unusually complete in its collection of 
catalogued large carbon photographs — over ten thousand of them, its books 
on art, and its pieces of original sculpture and painting — but because of 
its exhibitions, which are carried out systematically and with unusual rich- 
ness. Besides the exhibition of etchings, portraits, old engravings and photo- 
graphs, the Athenaeum has worked out several distinctive ideas: For instance, 
the war posters which it has assembled during the last two years have been 
of tremendous enlightenment. During 19 1G there has been a carefully 
worked out exhibition of the photographs of fountains, parks, squares and 
public monuments in European cities — working in very neatly with the 
growing importance of city planning in our municipal life. 

It is not possible for a stranger to enter fully into an appreciation of 
the work and the atmosphere of the Athenaeum. The shares which are 


held by the proprietors today, were held by Webster, Prescott and Holmes 
and men of their circle and generation. And the traditions established 
b} r the co-operation of such men are understood and reverenced by tt 
who have followed them. Occasionally there has been a resentment against 
the exclusiveness of this institution — for one must either be a proprietor 
or obtain the reading privilege from a proprietor before the sacred precincts 
are open. But. after all, there is no reason why — even in America, every- 
thing should be free to everyone. 

The Athenaeum is generous, even in its exclusiveness. It is scholarly, 
even in its elegance; and in spite of its pride in the past, its spirit of pro- 
gression keeps it abreast of the most advanced institutions of the present. 

Mr. Charles Knowles Bolton, who has been Librarian of the Athenaeum 
for 18 years, has made himself much loved by Bostonians because of his 
many activities outside the Library as well as within. As Treasurer of the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, as President of the Society 
for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, as Senior Warden of Christ 
Church, Mr. Bolton has distinguished himself for constructive services. At 
Simmons College he has for several years instructed certain of the classes 
for training as librarians. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1S67; married 
Ethel Stan wood of Brookline, in 1897; is a graduate of Harvard, class of 
1890; is a writer of several books of history and fiction, and many articles 
on Library administration and other subjects. And he is above all, a genial 
and cultivated host to the many scholars and literary folk who come to the 
Athenaeum for pleasure and information. 

That he has been quite busy with his pen during these years of library 
work is evident by the following list of his published works: "Saskia, the 
Wife of Rembrant," published in 1S93; <: On the Wooing of Martha Pitkin," 
1894; 'The Love Story of Ursula Wolcott," 1895; "Brookline: History of a 
Favored Town/' 1897; "The Private Soldier Under Washington," 1902; 
"Scotch-Irish Pioneers/' 1910; "The Elizabeth Whitman Mystery." 1912; 
"American Library Histcry," 1911; "Christ Church, 1723." 1913. 


By Ralph Mortimer Jones. 

I was much interested in the article recently published in the Massa- 
chusetts Magazine, by Rev. T. F. Waters, on "Church Troubles in Yc Olden 
Time/' and think that you may like to publish the following article, as sup- 
plemental y to his dealing with church discipline, in the early colonial days. 

The most thorough way of treating this subject would be 1o cover the 
history of discipline in all the churches of New England An examination 
of the available records, would show that this is impossible in any complete 
way. Inasmuch as the rise and fall of discipline in all the New England 
churches is practically coincident, and the causes and occasion for disci- 
pline are similar, I think these excerpts from the records of the Chester 
Baptist Church, at Vermont, will be found typical of the Church discipline 
elsewhere. I believe these records present as elaborate and complete a 
story, as that of any church in this state, or perhaps Massachusetts. 

Discipline Begins. 

The history of the Chester Church is recorded from August 10, 1789, but 
the first authentic case of discipline is found in an entry made on March 17. 

1792, in which we are informed that "Brothers G and L , of our sister 

church at Rockingham, have conducted themselves in an unbecoming manner, 
which if true, is to their disgrace and to the wounding of the cause of truth.'' 

Brother G , we are told, later "gave satisfaction to the church in public 

by appearing in the spirit of humility/' 

I quote verbatim the following entry, made April 2, L796, because it 
illustrates the method of discipline used in such cases, and also the formula 



of words employed, with only occasional variation.-, to bring charge against 
an unruly member: 

April 2, 1796., received the following complaint against Sister Esther 
C : Whereas Sister C has appeared to imbrace the Universal senti- 
ment, and in her conversation countenances the same, also bringing unreason- 
able charges against the Baptist Churches, after the first and second steps with 
according to the Gospel, without gaining satisfaction, I tell it to the Church. 

WiiiL t a *i La r r a b e e . 

Chose Brethren Edmund Bryant, Samuel Manning and Beman Boynton 
to go and labor with Sister and report at our next meeting. 

The next meeting is entered as held April 30: 

Heaid the report of the committee that went to sec Sister . Voted 

to send her a letter and request her to attend our next meeting. 

The next entry that has to do with Sister C is mode for June 16. 


Took into consideration the situation of Sister C , and unamimously 

voted to send her a letter of exclusion, but not till after our next confer- 
ence, that she may have still further oppurtunity of considering the solemnity 

of being cut off from communion with the church Voted that Brother 

Biglow inform Sister C of the church's procedings. 

No further mention is made of Sister C in the records, so we may 

presume that she continued obdurate, and that the sentence of the church 
was carried out. My examination of the records has convinced me that 
this case may be regarded as fairly typical of that time. 

Method of Discipline. 

The method of discipline in all such cases seems to have followed pretty 
accurately the rules laid clown in Matthew 18:15-17. One member, having 
occasion to complain against another member in the church, first goes to 
him in person. If his expostulation has no salutory effect he takes with 


him two or three others who expostulate together with the delinquent 
and secure the facts. Failing in this second step, he tells the church, mak- 
ing a definite accusation in writing, of his complaint. The church in turn 
appoints a committee of one or more to wait on the accused and to report 
results at the next meeting. If the church deems best, no satisfaction hav- 
ing been obtained, the committee is instructed to make a second or even a 
third effort to win over the delinquent to "a sense of duty and confession. 
That failing, he is dismissed from membership by a letter of exclusion handed 
to him personally by some one appointed for that purpose. The culprit 
was, of course, subject to restoration in the event of ultimate repentence. 
There is no better way to make clear the causes for. discipline, and the 
temper of the men who exercised it so rigorously in those severe days, than 
to recite briefly from the records a catalogue of charges made. It may appear 
to the reader, at first glance, that the cases given here are chosen for the 
reason of novelty and interest. On the contrary, I piesent them without 
conscious selection, almost in the exact order of occurrence, merely leaving 
out of my catagloue of offenses such as would involve a repetition of some 
previous charge. Charges were preferred against: 

Sister W for imbracing the universal doctrine, asserting that she 

had as much reason to believe that all would be saved as that some would be 

Sister Abigail S for going into vicious company, and going with 

them in their amusements, for neglect of the worship of God on the first Lord's 
Dav in April, and going away upon secular pursuits on Sunday. 

Brother John R for neglect of public worship. 

Brother B for difficulties between himself and others. Excluded 

after "painful labor." 

Sister Lydia H for going with young people in dancing and other 

carnal amusements, and for wishing to be dismissed from the church that 
she might go on in carnal mirth with less remorse. 

Brother B for saying that the church was in error in respect to 

the subject and mode of baptism. 

Brother John R for dancing. 

Sister Lucy M for neglect of Christian duties. 


Brother Benjamin P for making two attempts to cast out devils, in 

which he thinks he was successful. 

Brother Asa L For having encouraged people to bring instrumental 

musick into the church worship. 

Sister II for having joined with people of another denomination 

calling themselves Methodists. 

Brothers R and C for difficulties subsisting between them- 

Sister V for prevarication. 

Brother A for imbracing the Restoration doctrine. 

Sister D for backsliding. 

Brother Win. G for intemperance.. 

Brother John C for playing at cards. 

Brother Wm. T for staying away from church. 

Brother and Sister B (man and wife) for keeping up a quarrel be- 
tween themselves. 

Sister Jane H for indulging herself in the vanities of irreligious 

young people. 

Brother Nathan W for suing Brother F which is contrary to 

the Gospel rule. 

Brother Nathan W (again) for transacting unnecessary worldly 

business on the Lord's day. 

At a single meeting held February 6, 1842, the church excluded thre 
members for various causes, voted itself dissatisfied with a fourth, and ap- 
pointed a disciplinary committee to labor with two others. Xo other business 
was transacted. The meeting was opened with prayer. This case is by 
no means unique in its severity. 

I do not wish, however, to weary the reader with a too copious recital 
of specific charges, some of which seem to us both rigorous ami absurd. It 
is plain that they were not so looked upon in that day. Through the inter- 
stices one catches a glimpse of the stern people who, one hundred years ago, 
did the business of the church. One finds them deficient in humor, bigoted, 
a little disposed to sancitify their personal spites and antipathic- by putting 
them before the church. In such phrases as "carnal mirth." "vanities/ 1 


"a people calling themselves Methodists," we recognize a generation whose 
modes of thought were as totally different from our own as can be well im- 
agined. Nevertheless we discover also a certain religious hardihood in which 
we are sadly lacking in these easy-going days, and a grim and steadfast reso- 
lution to uphold, at all costs, the honor and authority of the church. 

A Notable Case. 

In the year 1826 Elder Leland, pastor of the church and a truly great 
man, was himself subjected to disciplinary action. This was not to be won- 
dered at. The village must have been reasonably full, at this time, of dis- 
gruntled people who had been excluded from the church, some of them by 
the direct complaint of Elder Leland himself; and he, both as a legislator 
(having risen to the position of lieutenant-governor), and as a prominent 
Mason, was assuredly not secure from the charge of secular pursuits. Elder 
Leland was tried on a petition presented by eleven defected members of his 
own church, and, tho largely exonerated, was severely reprimanded by th e 
investigating committee in that he had "discovered a thirst for the honors, 
offices and emoluments of this world." A complete and interesting account 
of this celebrated trial may be found in Mr. Henry Crocker's Life of Leland. 
I merely present it as a notable case, and as typical of the severity of church 
discipline in those early days. It is equally characteristic of the period 
that the eleven members who brought complaint against the Elder were all 
excluded from his communion, tho they were afterwards restored and ex- 
onerated in a very sweet and winsome letter given over Elder Leland's own 

It was perhaps due to his own experience that the remaining days of 
Elder Leland, who was pastor of the Church until his death in August 1S:VJ. 
were almost wholly free from episodes of discipline. I can discover during 
these seven years only two cases of exclusion. These were notable years, 
marked by the most prodigious revival that lias ever blessed the church. 
What relation this revival and the absence of discipline may have had to 
each other T can only conjecture. That revivals almrst equally fervid had 


broken out previously during periods of severe discipline would seem to 
show, however, that the two things may readily exist together. 

Succeeding Pastorates. 

After Elder Leland's death, perhaps owing in no small way to the re- 
moval of his strong personality, discipline again takes chief place in the re- 
cords of the church. During the pastorates of Elders McCollam. Person 
and Ely, 1837-42, there is to be found scarcely a single church meeting in 
which some member is not brought to book by the stern mandate of the 
church. A few cases may be noted. Again I give them with no thought 
of any conscious selection: 

Brother P for his unchristian conduct while in Boston. 

Sister Eunice C for her disorderly walk. 

Brother F for whipping Brother H 's child. 

Sister B for lightness and twice visiting the ball-chamber. 

Sister R for conjuring. 

Sister H for believing there is no need of baptism. 

Brother and wife for complaining of close communion. 

During this period one deacon was excluded by a divided vote of the 
church, on the charge of embezzlement and general dishonesty: still another 
deacon on a charge of discontent with the procedure of the church: and 
a serious charge was preferred against Elder Ely himself by two disaffected 
members of his communion. These too were troublous days, and one can 
find little diminution in severity over the early days of Elder Leland. 

A Stern Pastor. 

But discipline in Chester leached its climax a little later during the 
ten years of Elder Reuben Sawyer. Here was a stern man. and the church 
was made to bend to his will. Yet is it a singular tact that his parish loved 
him. ... At the outset of this pastorate (the record comes with a certain 
grim humor to the people of this lenient day) it was complained that "dis- 
cipline had been neglected, " and the church voted unauimoulsy that they 


were guilty of the charge preferred. The omission, however, was soon am- 
ply repaired. I submit an example from the minutes of this period which is 
typical of the entire tone and trend of Elder Reuben Sawyer's stern and vig- 
ilant pastorate: 

Voted, a committee to look after Sister B. 

Heard report of committee to visit Brother J. Voted to continue same. 

Voted to withdraw hand of fellowship from Sister B. 

Voted Deacon H. a committee to investigate the character of Brother 

Voted that the committee to visit delinquents prosecute their labor 
with more zeal. 

So it goes ''ad finitum" through the pastorate of Reuben Sawyer. Most 
of the disciplinary cases are for neglect of covenant obligations. Charges 
are not so definitely outlined as in the older days; and a new phrase is intro- 
duced into the records which is peculiar, so far as I can discover, to this par- 
ticular pastorate, namely that "Brother So and so does not travel with the 

We may well imagine that the church breathed a sigh of relief when this 
stern hand was lifted after nine sombre years, during which time the people 
had been brought to the very brink of ruin. Something of this feeling is 
rather whimsically reflected in the church's annual letter to the association. 
We read: "After our pastor left us the church seemed to feel a strong desire. 
that God would revive us." Which, to say the least, was rather 'into' Elder 
Reuben Sawyer. Few members had been added during this time. 

Elder Sawyer lies buried in the Chester church-yard only a stone's 
throAV from Elder Aaron Leland. The Apostle and The Puritan sleep to- 

Discipline Declines. 

This pastorate marks the high-tide of discipline in Chester. From this 
time on it seems to have been almost wholly abandoned. During the suc- 
ceeding pastorates of Elders Burroughs and Gurr, extending from 1S55 to 


1867, a period of twelve years, there are in all only four cases of disciplin 6 
recorded. Three of these were for the "entire neglect of covenant obli- 
gations." During the succeeding pastorate of Mr. Hibbard, 1867-75. only 
one case is set down. It is hard to account for the sudden extinction of dis- 
cipline in the life of the church. It is like the instant shutting of a door 
that had been a moment before wide open. The fact remains that church 
discipline, so far as the Baptists of Chester are concerned, was practically 
ended when Elder Reuben Sawyer handed in his resignation. November 
14, 1853. Perhaps it died in some measure of its own severity. Possibly the 
members began to realize that if they were to be tried for every breach of 
faith and conduct there would scon be no people left in the church. At 
all events discipline died. And there is little chance that it ever again, in 
the old severity, will come to life again. 

Discipline In Other Churches. 

That the extinction of Church discipline in Chester is coincident with 
its extinction all over the State is borne out by a casual examination of the 
existing records. Out of twenty cases recorded in Mr. Crocker's ''History 
of the Baptists in Vermont" there is not one that occurred subsequent to 
1850. It is true that causes not operative in Chester had their part to play 
in the discipline of other churches. Masonry, for example, which had little 
effect on the Chester church, partly perhaps because Elder Leland was him- 
self a Mason, was a potent source of disaffection and discipline in the churches 
of the Addison and Lamoille Associations. It is interesting to those Bap- 
tists who may be Masons, to read this resolution in the minutes of the Addi- 
son Association in 1833: 

Resovled, That this Association recommend to the churches compos- 
ing it to deal with such as practice speculative freemasonry (if there is^ as 
they would with those who practice any other moral evil. 

Millerism, which is described as an extreme form of the Advent doctrine, 
and which had its vogue from 1841 to 1S43, was particulaly ruinous in Addi- 


son Count}'. From the Addison Church nineteen who advocated this doc- 
trine were excluded at one time, and from the Bristol Church no fewer than 
twenty-seven at one time. Another question that disturbed the churches, 
especially of the Lamoille Association, was in reference to the validity of 
immersion when administered by a pedobaptist; and in 1820 Elder Tuttle 
and forty-six other members, including the Clerk and two Deacons, ircre ex- 
cluded from the Fairfax Church in one day. Earlier in the life of that associ- 
ation members were disciplined,, and not a few excluded, for uniting with 
the Washingtonian Temperance Society, not on account of its temperance 
principles, however, but because it was a secret organization. . . .These, 
however, are only special causes. In general, it may be asserted with some 
confidence that the ordinary causes for discipline were about the same in 
all the Baptist churches in the State as those already noted in the history 
of the church in Chester, that its decline began somewhat earlier in most of 
them, and that its extinction occurred at substantially the same time. Sub- 
sequent cases are merely episodes. 

Causes For The Decline. 

Although it is difficult to account for the abrupt end of discipline in these 
churches, it is not so difficult to assign certain causes for its decline and ulti- 
mate extinction. Among these the following contributing causes may be 
briefly noted: (1) That the looseness of the Baptist organization, in which 
one man is as good as any other man, made discipline much harder to ad- 
minister in Baptist than most other churches. (2) That the old disciplinary sys- 
tem gave too wide a scope for individual spite and rancour. (3) That discipline 
in the great majority of cases, was ineffective in its operation on the offender. 
(4) That our conceptions of social liberty have broadened. (5) That doc- 
trines are less accurately defined than they once were, and that our inter- 
denominational sympathies have immeasurably widened. (6) That the 
life of our church-members, on the whole, and considered in the light of 
new conceptions, has become more exemplary. (7) That the authority of 
Scripture, owing to a general neglect of Bible-study, is less seriously ree- 


ognized than it used to be . . . (8)This last reason must be considered a little 
more at length: It is the nature of religion that it deals as much with the inner 
life as with the outward conduct. But it is the infirmity of any disciplin- 
ary system that it must concern itself almost wholly with conduct. We 
may discipline a man for intemperance, neglect of worship and expre 
heresy, when it is impossible to touch him if bis reproach shall be the subt- 
ler sin of a covetous or a malicious spirit. And yet it has to be admitted 
that our covenant obligations forbid the one no more than the ether, and 
that these spiritual heresies are as real and vicious as any of the rest. Our 
forefathers tried conscientiously to take all these things into account, not 
merely an overt act but a state of mind, with the result that the church was 
transformed into a kind of Inquisition that kept its eye at every key-hole. 
Such a s\^stem was intolerable. On the other hand, it has to be confessed 
that no less rigorous system could be described as quite impartial. The 
eighth reason in short, for the decline of discipline, is that the church when 
exercising discipline, has found it difficult to be more than an ecclesiastical 

I present these eight reasons, without further comment, as some of the 
causes that have contributed to the decline and eventual extinction of dis- 
cipline in our churches. 

Remarks and a Quest 'ion. 

We may well wonder, in the light of this stern record, whether the pre- 
sent dilettante life of our churches does not go far to show that the absence 
of all discipline is as harmful as its excessive application. We are better 
in a good many ways than those men of other generations. We have a larger 
conception of the social life. We greet other churches with less asperity. 
We walk with wider steps and whistle as we go. But it may be that in the 
acquirement of these new virtues we have lost a little of that religious hardi- 
hood and sober deference of Scriptural authority, that made the severe days 
of our fathers so notable. 

[This is the 23rd of a series of monographs on the Regiments from Maseachusettfl in the War 
of the American Revolution, which are appearing in Thr Massachusetts Mngo;,' t\ 



Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 19th Regiment, Provincial Army, April— July, 177.5. 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 6th Regiment, Army United 
Colonies, July — December 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

This regiment was made up of ten companies, the members of which 
were largely recruited in the following counties: three companies from Mid- 
dlesex, three from Hampshire, two from Suffolk and one each from Wor- 
cester and Norfolk. 

The earliest mention of the regiment in the records is the following 
order, into which the words in parenthesis were written, thereby causing 
much trouble, as will be shown. 

"In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, April 24, 1775 
To Captain Daniel Whiting, Gentm. 
(You are to inlis a Company of Rangers Whereof Jon a Brewer, 
Esqr. is Cornell). 

You are hereby empowered immediately to inlist a Company to con- 
sist of 56 able-bodied and effective Men, including Sergeants, as Soldiers 
in the Massachusetts Service, for the Preservation of American Liberty; and 
cause them to pass muster as soon as possible. 

Jos. Warren, Chairman. 
In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, 2 June, 1775." 

The following document explains itself: 



"In Committee of Safety, May 20, 1775. 
To the Honble Provincial Congress at Watertown: 

The Committee of Safety beg leave to represent to your Honours the 
conduct of Jonathan Brewer of Waltham. Said Brewer was recommen- 
ded to this Committee as a suitable person to take Orders to Enlist a Reg- 
iment on the present Establishment & accordingly received ten sets of orders 
from this Committee for that purpose, since then various Complaints have 
been made to us relative to his Conduct when said Brewer gave out his in list- 
ing Orders to inlist a Regiment of Rangers & gave some of his Capt's written 
orders accordingly, directly contrary to the orders he received from this 
Committee & by that means drew off men from Companies & Regiments 
which has occasioned great uneasiness & frequent Complaints. He has 
without any authority taken into his Custody & service 2 Horses one belong- 
ing to Collo Jones and the other to Collo Taylor & has kept them for several 
weeks past. He has also given a Lease of part of said Jones's Real Estate. 
without any other pretence of Right than that of Jones being an enemy to 
his Country and taken in security therfor his own name. 

Altho the Committee were at first induced to give the sd Brewer in- 
listing orders to raise a Regiment from the Character they had of him (as 
being Courageous and experienced in War &c) they are now fully convinced 
from the evidence the}' have since had of the low Artifices cv. impositions he 
has made use of to obtain the small number of men he has returned, his Seiz- 
ing private property & Converting of it to his own use in a manner that can't 
by an}' means be justified <fc which we feel will be improved by our Enemies 
to the Dishonor & detriment of this Colony. 

Upon the whole we apprehend that he has in many instances not only 
disqualified himself for serving this Colony as a Collo. of a Regiment but 
ought immediately to be Dealt with in such a manner as you in your Wisdom 
shall think proper. . Benja. White, Chairman." 

N. B. Said Brewer acknowledges That he inserted the above interlin- 
eation & attempted to justify himself in so doing, before the Oomtee of Safe- 
ty; said Comtee do not call this a Forgery but think it unjustifiable be it called 
by what name it may — He owned that he had alter'd several other of the 
inlisting Papers & said Comtee ordered him to return em immediately but 
he has long neglected & still neglects to return em. 

Benja'n White, Chairman." 


"The Committee appointed to consider the Charges alleged against 
Mr. Jonathan Brewer by the Honble Committee of Safety have attended 
that service and beg leave to report to the defense of said Brewer 

That he the said Brewer absolutely denies the Charge of Seducing the 
men belonging to other Corps to Inlist in his Regiment or any of the Com- 
panies thereof. As to the taking of horses of Colic Jones and Taylor he 
acknowledes his thus doing and thinks himself Justified therein by further- 
ing the Service of the Province in which he was engaged, that ho had used 
them sometime past in that way and on Saturday last had returned Job 
horse. He also owns the sealing part of Said Jones's Estate and taking se- 
curity which Security he says, was in the keeping of one Capt. Butler that 
he had proceeded in the affair mere 1 .}' trom a principle of saving ye improve- 
ment of One Mr. Jennison (whose lands were continuous to that of -aid 
Jones) and which were exposed by a neglect of said Jones in keeping up 
suffixient fences. Said Jennison (as Brewer says) supposing if he would 
thus dispose of the above leased land to him, he could fence and improve it 
without molestation. And that the Committee can proceed nc further un- 
less they are enabled by hearing the full of Evidences Supposed to Sup- 
port the Complaint. 

By order Richd Perkins, Chairman." 

'"Watertown, 7 June, 1775. 
To the Honorable Congress 

I the Subscriber, being informed that some of the Members of the Hon- 
orable Committee of Safety have consters some part of my Conduct as 
reflecting uppon that Honble Committee, which I be no means intended: 
and I (wherein) have, either by Word or Action at aney time passed any 
reflection or behaved indesant and unbecoming a Gentlemen, I am verrey 
gorrey, and Humbley Ask that the Honorable Congress will impart it to 
the agitation of mind which I then was in concearning that several Per- 
sons that are Innemical to me, had been striving to Prejudice both the Hon- 
ble Congress & Committee against me; And Gentlemen, I'm verey sorrey 
again to interrupt the Honble Congress in their Business, but hope you'll 
Excuse me in once more renewing my request that you be Pleased to Es- 
tablish me at the Head of my Rigement when it is Nearley full, not Gent- 


lemen that Fm so fond of bearing a Commission, but because there is so good, 
Coine of officers and large Number of Soldiers that are so strongly Attach'd 
to me that they will be greatley disappointed if they can't be favored with 
the leader they wish to go under; Therefore for the good of the Service, 
your pertishoner as in Dutey bound shall ever pray. 

J. Brewer. n 

A resolve had been passed in the Second Provincial Congress May 20, 

''That the papers respecting Jonathan Brewer, be transmitted by the 
secretary to the Committee of Safety, to be by them acted upon in such a 
manner as they think fit, so far as to determine on the expediency of rec- 
ommending, or not recommending him, to this Congress, as an officer of 
the army now raising in this colony." 

In the afternoon session of the Provincial Congress, June 3, 1775, ''the 
papers respecting Col. Brewer were read. After debate, Moved, That the 
matter subside; the question being put, it passed in the negative. Moved, 
that the petitioner be admitted on the floor; the question was put, and it 
passed in the negative. 

Resolved, That Tuesday next, at eight o'clock, A. M., be assigned for 
hearing Col. Jonathan Brewer, on the subject of certain papers laid be- 
fore this Congress by order of the committee of safety, and that the commit- 
tee of safety, as also Col. Brewer, be served with a copy of this resolve, and 
that Col. Brewer be directed to bring with him a return of the number of 
men enlisted in his regiment, distinguishing how many are present at head 
quarters, and how many are absent/' 

Tuesday, June 6, 1775, "The papers respecting Col. Brewer were read 
and Col. Brewer was then admitted, and, on his request, Resolved that Capt. 
Edwards, Capt. Butler, Lieut. Tuckerman, Col. Buckminster, Mr. Cud- 
worth, Thomas Withington and Capt. Gray, be admitted on the floor of 
this house, as witnesses (evidence) in the cause. 

The complaint of the committee of safety being read, and Col. Brewer 


having had leave of making his defence, he was fully heard there in. as were 
also the witnesses by him produced, the galleries being first opened for any 
who were inclined to hear the cause. 

Col. Brewer, having offered what he saw fit, withdrew with his wit- 
nesses, and the galleries being cleared, Resolved, that the further consider- 
ation of this matter be referred to the afternoon 

The Congress resumed the consideration of the case of Mr. Brewer; 
and after a long and full debate, it was Moved, that the question be put 
whether the' president should be directed to deliver a commission to Mr. 
Brewer, as colonel of a regiment in the Massachusetts army, and it passed 
in the negative; the number of members present being 150, and but 70 for 
the question. Mr. Cushing informed the Congress that Mr. Benjamin 
Edwards on hearing at the door of this House of the determination of Con- 
gress respecting Mr. Brewer made use of the following expression, viz.: 

'By God if this Province is to be governed in this manner it is time for 
us to look out, and 'tis all owing to the Committee of Safety, a pack of sappy 
headed fellows. I know three of them myself.' 

Whereupon, Resolved, .that Mr. Edwards be directed to attend them as 
to make answer to the above charge. 

Mr. Edwards being called in, and having heard the charge alleged against 
him, it was 

Resolved, that Mr. Edwards have leave to withdraw, and that he be 
directed to attend this Congress tomorrow morning at ten o'clock." 

In the transactions of the next day we read that a "a petition from 
Col. Brewer and another from several nominal Captains under him were 
read and ordered to lie on the table. " Also 

" Resolved that Mr. Edwards be called in, and admonished by the Pres- 
ident, which was done accordingly/' 

The difficulty was evidently promptly and satisfactorily adjusted, for on 
June 13, "Colonel" Jonathan Brewer, as shown further on in this article. 


was appointed on an important committee, and commissioned two days 

The following petition, without date is filed away in the archives under 
date of May 20, 1775: 

"To the Honorable, the President and Members of the Provincial Congress 
of Massachusetts Bay — now sitting at Watertown in sd Province. 
The Petiton of Jonathan Brewer, Esqr., of Waltham, Honorably Show- 
eth, that your Petitioner having a desire of Contributing, all in his power 
for his Country's good, begg leave to propose to this Honble House, to March 
with a Body of five Hundred Volunteers to Quebeck, by Way of the Rivers 
Kennebeck and Chadier as he humbly begs leave to apprehend that such a 
Diversion of the Provincial troops into that part of Canada would be the 
Means of Drawing the Governor of Canada with his Troops into that Quarter 
add which would effectually Secure the Northern and Western Frontiers 
from any Inroads of the Regular or Canadian Troops. This he humbly 
Conceived he would Execute with all the Feeility Imaginable — he there- 
fore beggs that the Honble Assembly Would take this proposal into Con- 
sideration and to act theiron as their wisdom shall Seem meet. 

J. Brewer." 

The earliest list of Field and Staff officers connected with this regiment 
was dated August 2G, 1775, and was made up as follows: 

"Colonel Jonathan Brewer, Waltham 

Lieutenant Colonel William Buckminster, Hutchinson 

Major Nathan Cudworth, Sudbury 

Adjutant John Butler, Peterborough 

Quartermaster Charles Dahorety, Framingham 

Surgeon D. Townsend, Boston 

Surgeon's Mate Hilleory Fuger, Lancaster" 

The following list made up May 18, 1775, shows the strength of the 
companies at that date: 

The companies in Captains Jno. Black, Isaac Gray, Abijah Childs 


Ebenezer Winship and Edward Blake had each one captain, one lieutenant, 
one ensign, 4 sergeants and one fifer. Captain Black's Company numbered 
49 rank and file, total 57; Captain Gray's 37 rank and file, total 45; Captain 
Child's 55 rank and file, total 63; Captain Winship's 46 rank and file, total 
54; Captain Blake's 34 rank and file, total 42. 

The following Captains were reported as "recruiting, not joined." 

Captains Simon Stevens, Daniel Whiting. Aaron Haynes, John Woods 
and John Dewey. 

June 13, 1775, Colonel Jonathan Brewer was appointed by the Third 
Provincial Congress, one of a committee of eight colonels, including Glover, 
Heath, David Brewer and others "to make a true return to the committee 
on the claims and pretentions of several gentlemen claiming to be com- 
missioned as Colonels; of the number of Captains, who, with their respective 
companies do choose to serve under the above named gentlemen respec- 
tively as colonels; of the number of men; of the number of effective fire arms 
in each company; and of the place or places where said companies are: on 
pains oi forfeiting all pretention to a commission of a colonel in case of mak- 
ing a false return." 

His commission as Colonel was ordered in Provincial Congress. June 

15, 1775. 

The above named committee reported June loth as follows concerning 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. That he had levied "cigh* companies. 
amounting, inclusive of officers, to the number 01 397 men who choose to 
seo r e under him, the said Jonathan, as their chief colonel; and that 302 oi 
said men, are armed with good firelocks: and that all of said men. except- 
ing 27, who are on the road hither, are posted at Cambridge and Brooklinej 
and the said Brewer supposes from accounts he has received, that one Cap- 
tain Murray is on the road from Hatfield hither with a full company." 

"A Return of Colo. Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, Cambridge. June 
15, 1775: 









£h <J 





Isaac Gray 






45 49 




Edward Blake 






35 2 




John Black 






45 49 





Aaron Havnes 






40 50 

. — 




Daniel Whiting 






36 47 




Benja. Ballard 






31 35 





Thaddeus Russell 






29 40 





Joseph Stebbins 






16 20 





Seth Murray 


their wa; 

Supposed to be 


(Captain Ebenezer 



s name 


also in the 


list b 

tit was erased.: 

N. B. Capt. Child who Commanded a Compy in my Reg't Consist- 
ing of sixty Hank & File has as I am Inform'd Joynd Colo. Gardner's Reg't 
without my Consent. Capt. Winship's Compy mustered and Pd in Col. 
Nixon's Reg't but not comisioned " 

"A Return of Officers to be Commissioned under Colo. Jonathan Brewer. 

William Buckminister, Lieut. Col. 
Nath'l Cudworth, Majoi 

Isaac Gray, Capt. 
Thomas Willington, Lieut. 
Willson, Ensign 


Edward Blake, Capt. 
Abrm Tuckerman, Lieut. 
John Emens, Ensign 

John Black, Capt. 
Benjn Gates, Lieut. 
John Patrick 




Aaron Haynes, Capt. 

Elisha Brewer, Lieut. 56 

, Ensn. 

Daniel Whiting, Capt. 

Zebediah Dewey, Lieut. , 46 

, Ensn. 

Benjn. Billiard, Capt. 

(Aron) Gardner, Lieut. 40 

, Ensn. 

Thadeus Russell, Capt. 
Nath'l Maynard, Lieut. 
Nath Reeves, Ensn. 

Joseph Stebbins, Capt. 

Lieut. 21 

, Ensn. 

(Spaces were left for two other sets of officers, not filled in.) 

John Butler, Adjutant 
Charles Dahaughty, Quartermaster 
J. Brewer, Conel." 

'In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, June 17, 1775. 

Collo. Jonathan Brewer having satisfied this Committee that there 
are 371 men, in the eight Companies mentioned on the other side, it is rec- 
ommended to the Honorable Provincial Congress that said Brewer's Regiment 
may be Commissioned accordingly. 

William Cooper, Sec'y« 

Ordered that a Commission be delivered to each of the officers within 
named except Joseph Stebbins, Capt." 

This Regiment took an active part in the battle of Bunker Hill. The 
story of its activity as given by Frothingham in his "Siege of Boston" is 
as follows: 


"Jonathan Brewer's regiment, of Worcester and Middlesex, c< 

June 15, of 397 men. William Buckminister was lieutenant colonel 
Nathaniel Cudworth, major — all of whom did excellent duty in the hat tie. 
On the same day the committee ol safety recommended the officers of this 
regiment to be commissioned, with the exception of Captain Stebbins, 
did not have the requisite number of men. Colonel Swctt states that thig 
regiment went on about three hundred strong: revolutionary de] 
state one hundred and fifty. It was stationed mostly on the diagonal line 
between the breastwork and the rail fence. Few details arc given respect- 
ing Colonel Brewer other than that he was consulted often by Prescott and 
behaved with spirit and was wounded, or of Major Cudworth, the same who 
led the Sudbury minute-men to attack the British Troops on the 10th 
of April." 

The casualties of this regiment in the battle consisted of twelve killed 
and twenty-two wounded, according to a list given in 4 Force II. 1628. 

Two other companies joined this regiment in addition to those named 
in the foregoing lists. They were commanded by Captain Lemuel Tres- 
eott and Moses Harvey. 

The principal towns represented in the regiment are shown in the follow- 
ing list: 


Benjamin Bullard, Sherborne, Dummerston, Charlestown, &c. 

Daniel Whiting, Dedham. Tyringham. Needham, &c. 

Edward Blake, Boston, Charlestown. Maiden, Providence, &c. 

Lemuel Trescott, Boston, Beverly, Deerfield, Cape Ann. 

Moses Harvey, Hampshire County towns, Brattleborough. 

Isaac Gray, Pelham, Greenwich. 

John Black, Hutchinson, (Barre). 

Aaron Haynes, Sudbury, Concord, Walt ham, &c. 

Joseph Stebbins, Deerfield, Tyringham, Sheffield, Kinderhook, &c. 

Thaddeus Russell, Sudbury, Deerfield, &c. 

During May and June this regiment was numbered the 10th in the 
Provincial Army, and when the Army of the United Colonels was formed 


in July it became the 6th in that establishment and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Greene's Brigade, Major General Lee's Division. 

"Thirteen small arms were delivered Col. Jonathan Brewer, for the use 
of his regiment, amounting, as by appraisement to twenty-six pound- seven 
shillings, for which a receipt was taken in the minute book." (Records of 
the Committee of Safety, July 1, 1775.) 

''Cambridge, July 4, 1775. 

Whereas, a number of the men that enlisted in the different Companies 
in my Regiment have, through the low artifice and cunning ot several recruit- 
ing officers of different Regiments, re-enlisted into other Companies, being 
over persuaded by such arguments as, that Colonel Brewer would not be 
commissioned, and that if they did not immediately join some other Reg- 
iment, they would be turned out of the service; others were tempted with 
a promise to have a dollar each to drink the recruiting officers health; others 
by intoxication of strong liquor; by which means a considerable number 
have deserted my Regiment, as will be made to appear by the returns there- 
from, as also in the different Companies and Regiments they are re-enlis- 
ted into. In consequence of which my Regiment is, to the detriment of 
the service, considerably weakened; therefore your petitioner humbly prays 
that the Honorable Congress will take this matter into consideration, and 
either order the re-enlisted men to the several officers they firs.: enlisted under, 
or be pleased to direct to some method of filling up the Regiment, as the 
Honorable Congress in their wisdom may see fit, and your petitioner, as 
in duty bound will ever pray. 

Jonathan Brewer. 
'To the Honorable Congress' 

"The Committee on the Petition of Colonel Jonathan Brewer reported. 

The report was accepted, and is as follows, viz: 
Resolved, that "the prayers of Colonel Brewer's Petition be so granted, that 
said Colonel Brewer be allowed to recruit men sufficient to complete his 
Regiment or so far as he can complete ins said Regiment in twenty days: 
he not to enlist any person as a Soldier who shall not furnish himself with 
a good and sufficient fire arm.'' 

(Provincial Congress, July S. 1775.) 

Colonels Jonathan and David Brewer petitioned the Board to com- 


mission certain officers in their regiment, September 28, 1775, and the fol- 
lowing action was taken. 

"A Return of Officers in Colo. Jona. Brewer's Regiment that were ap- 
pointed but not Commissioned by the Honble Congress through the Con- 
fusion that took place after the 17th of June, vizt: 












"Leml. Triscott 

Xath'i Cushiiig John Kilby Smith 






Moses Harvey 

John Clark Elip: Hastings 






Joseph Stibbens 

John Chad wick Charles Dohoretv 






Josha Leland 






Aaron Whiting 






Abrm Williams 






Staff Officers 

Abrm Tuckerman, Adjutant 
David Town send, Surgeon 
Harris Elly Fudger, " Mate 
Charles Dehorety, Q. Master." 

"Council Chamber Congress, Watertown, Sept. 27, 1775. 

We approve of the officers within named in Colo. Jonathan Brewer's 
rigiment and Recommend them to Receive Commissions according to their 


To His Excellancy Gen'l Washington." 

"Council Chamber, Watertown, Sept. 27, 1775. 

Colo. Jonathan Brewer having Signified to us that the following named 
officers have not Received Commissions in his Regiment, viz 

Lemuel Triscott, Moses Harvey, Joseph Stebbins, Captains; Nathan 
Cushing, John Clarke, John Chadwick, Lieutenants; John Eibby Smith, 
Eliphelet Hastings, Charles Doherty, Joshus Lealand, Aaron Whiting. Abra- 
ham Williams, Ensigns. 

Abraham Tuckerman, Adjutant 

David Townsend, Surgeon 

Harris Ellery Fudger, Surgeon's Mate 

Charles Doherty, Quarter Master 


We do accordingly approve them and Recommend them to Receive 
Commissions according to their Rank Respectively. 

In the name of any By Order of the Council 
Gen'l Washington. 
In Council September 28, 1775. 

Read and accepted and ordered to be signed and forwarded by the Pres- 
ident of the Council. 

Perez Morton, Dep. Sec'y." 

Returns preserved in the archives show that the regiment was sta- 
tioned at Prospect Hill in June 9, in July, September 30th and October 18th, 

It remained there during the rest of the year. 

The strength of the army through the year is shown in the following 
table : — 

Com. Off. 




Rank & File 


June 9, 1775 


. . 




July 1775 



48 f 



Aug. 18, 1775 






Sept. 23, 1775 






Oct. 17, 1775 






Nov. 18, 1775 






Nov. 19, 1775 






including Coporals, drummers and fifers. 
"[Including drummers and fifers. 

Nineteen of the commissioned officers of this regiment had seen service 
in the French and Indian war or in the Provincial Militia, three having 
attained the rank of captain, one lieutenant and two that of en>ign. 

They attained rank during the American Revolution as follows; colonel 
1, lieut. colonel 2, major 3, captain 16, first lieutenant 7, ensign 2 and surgeon '2. 

Colonel Jonathan Brewer was assigned to the command of the 6th 
Regiment in the new establishment, that is the Continental Army, for 1770. 
but owing to the great disappointment of Colonel Asa Whitcomb in being 
left out, Colonel Brewer gave it up in his favor. A record of this appears 


in 4 Force III pp. 1614-15, and in the same volume, pp. 541-2, a roster of 
the 6th regiment in the "new establishment" gives Colonel Jonathan Br 
as Commander, Lieutenant Colonel Buekminster. and Major Nathaniel 
Cudworth, being the other officers named. 

COLONEL JONATHAN BREWER of Waltham, son of Jonathan 
and Arrabella Brewer, was born in Framingham, February 3, 1725-6. He 
became a large land holder and lived on the Goddard place in Framing- 
ham, later owned by J. H. Temple. From June 21st to September 19, 1754 
he was a member of Captain John Johnson's Company, Colonel Winslow's 
Regiment, serving in the defense of the Eastern Frontier. In 1770 he bought 
a farm on the line between Waltham and Watertown, where he kept a tav- 
vern. H^s date of entry into service in the Revolution is given as April 
24, 1775 and the various difficulties which he had in organizing his regi- 
ment have been given in the historical section ot this article. His letter 
concerning a suggested invading of Canada written about May 20 or 21, 
1775, is of peculiar interest and leads us to believe that the idea later car- 
ried out by Benedict Arnold and his men may have originated with Col- 
onel Jonathan Brewer. At the Battle of Bunker Hill he went in with about 
165 men and received a painful injury in the arm. The personal history 
of Colonel Jonathan Brewer during the remainder of 1775 has already been 
given in the historical section of this article, including his unselfish with- 
drawal in favor of Colonel Asa Whitcomb, when the regimental comman- 
ders w T ere assigned to the Continental Army regiments for service in 1776. 

In the General Orders dated "Headquarters, Jan. 5, 1776," taken from 
Col. Loammi Baldwin's Orderly book, an entry states that "'if Colonel Brewer 
inclines to Except the appointment of Barrick master he is to proceed di- 
rectly to discharge the duty of that office." 

"Colony of the Mass. Bay. 

To the Honl the Council & House of Representatives in Gen'l Court 
Assembled at Watertown June 4th 1776. 

The Memorial of Jonathan Brewer of Waltham in the County of Mid- 
dlesex & Colony aforesaid Esqr 


Humbly Shcwcth 

That no sooner were Hostilities commenced by the British Troops, 

against the Liberties of America, than we Voluntarily entered the Field 
for the Defense thereof, and obtained cf ye Honl Congress then Convened 
in this Colony, a Colonel's Comission & raised a Regiment; and he flatters 
himself in that Department as to merit the approbation of his Country, 
and in Particular so distinguished himself in the memorable Bottle of Bun- 
ker Hill, wherein he had the Honour of a Command; & was still Continued 
in Command by his Excellency Gen'l Washington after the troops were 
taken into Continental Service, and in Complyance with the Request of 
the Genl he gave up his Regiment to the Command of Col. Whitcomb, and 
at the General's like Request officiated as Barrack Master General until! 
some other suitable Birth should offer in which Case he had the General's 
Promise for further Promothion, and as Vacancy now Exi-ts your Memo- 
rialist being heartily inclined to serve his Country further & lend his assis- 
tance in this glorious Struggle for our Invaluable Privelidges Prays the Honl 
Court would Recommend him the memorialist to the Honble the Continen- 
tal Congress for further Promotion which I have Promise from Genl Wash- 
ington will be accompanid with his Letters to the like Purpose, 
And as in Duty bound 

shall ever Pray 

J. Brewer, Coll." 

"In House of Representatives, June 25, 177G, Resolved that if the Gen. 
Court recommend any other persons than the present Brigadiers and ether 
Field Officers to command the several Battalions destined for York and 
Canada, that Col. Jonathan Brewer he recommended to command the Bri- 
gade destined for Canada." 

"Com. of both Houses app.'to consider a Letter received from the Pres- 
ident of the Hon. Continental Congress dated June 25, 1776, reported a 
Resolve, that his Regiment be immediately raised .... for the North- 
ern Canada Dept." 

In the summer of 1776 he commanded a regiment of artificers which 
Heitman calls "The Massachusetts State Regiment of Artificers." Aug- 
ust 12, 1776, this regiment was in Brigadier General McDowell's Brigade. 
General Sullivan's Division, and later in the month we also read of it in the 


same Brigade. In the "Memorial History of New York'' it is stated that 
in September this was stationed with the rest of the regiments in General 
Sullivan's Division to the west of the rest of the army, near Bayard's Hill, 
and held there as a reserve, During the latter part of the year, the regi- 
ment was with the Northern Army, aceording to returns dated September 
22nd and November 9th of that year. He died January 4, 1784. 

inson (Barre), was the son of Colonel Joseph and Sarah (Lawson) Buckmin- 
ster. He was born in Framingham December 15, 1736. His name appears 
as alarm man in Captain Lieutenant Jeremiah Belknap's (Framingham) 
Company, Colonel Buckminster's Regiment, April 26, 1757. Captain 
William Buckminster commanded the 2nd Rutland District Company in 
Colonel John Murray's 3rd Worcester County Regiment in June, 1771. 
He entered service in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, April 24, 1775, 
and was present with his command at the battle of Bunker Hill where he 
received a dangerous wound. A musket ball entered his right shoulder 
and came out in the middle of his back, making him a cripple for life. He 
held this rank in this regiment through the year, and January 1, 1776, was 
appointed Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment 
in the Continental Army. In one of the records of this year he was re- 
ported "at New Rutland on account of wounds received June 17, 1775, at 
Bunker Hill." He died June 22, 1786. (See Col. John Nixon's Regiment.) 

MAJOR NATHANIEL CUD WORTH of Sudbury was probably the 
man of that name who was born in Scituate, May 30, 1747, the son of Ben- 
jamin and Mary (Little) Cudworth. On the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a Company of Minute Men in ColoDel 
Abijah "Pierce's" Regiment. April 24, 1775, he entered service as Major 
in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's regiment, and he served in that command 
through the year. January 1st, he became Major in Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army, and he continued in that organ- 


ization until March 11th. The following letter shows why a change was 

"Prospect Hill, March 11, 1770. 

Major Cudworth, lately discharged from Colonel WhitcomVs Regiment, 
has arrived to join Colonel Bond's. He is agreeable to the Field-Officers 
and satisfactory to the Captains and Subalterns. The Major is a good, 
prudent officer, and left the former regiment only because there was not 
proper order and discipine maintained in it. I esteem him worthy of the 
appointment; and if your Excellency's sentiments correspond with mine, 
should be glad he might receive his appointment to fill the vacancy in Col- 
onel Bond's Regiment. 

I am, with profound respect, 
Your Excellency's Most obedient humble Servant, 
Nathaniel Greene. 
To General Washington." 

He became Major of Colonel Bond's 25th Regiment in the Continental 
Army on this date, and served through the year. He died January 21, 1826. 

(To be continued in the October issue.) 

on ^oofye? anb <M|et jguhjeclrf 

The A T ew York Times continues to be the chief medium of expression 
regarding the tercentenary celebration in commemoration of the landing 
of the Pilgrims in Massachusetts 

John Cotton Dana advanced a unique suggestion in their columns, 
for the establisment of a New England Institute. The letter was as follow?: 

To Carry Ox New England Traditions 

Merely to celebrate by exhibitions, pageants, parades and demonstrations, however 
lofty in conception or elaborate and polished in execution, the 300th year of Xew Engl 1 I - 
existence would be quite futile. Indeed, it would be worse than futile; it would be harm- 
ful. For it would tend to arouse in all who are of Xew England descent the fe< ling that there 
is something meritorious in the mere lapse of time, in the mere rounding of centuries, :: 
mere persistence of families, of traditions and of habits, and even in the mere increase in 
numbers of those born of Xew England. It would, moreover, tend to make New Engl 
a subject of unpleasant comment for its boastfulness and would tend to arouse, even in the 
gentlest of out-lander critics, a wish to add a certain spite to his comments and to find new 
joints in the armor of Xew England's proper pride. 

If New England's influence has been very great for 300 years, and we believe it 1 - 
and if that influence has been in large part helpful, and we believe it has: then the things 
that obviously wait to be done on an occasion such as the year 1020 will bring to us are: 

1. To discover what results of that influence have been most helpful. 

2. To discover if it continues to this day and is still helpful. 

3. To try to increase that influence. 

At once if is clear that this program calls for careful study, unprejudiced observation, 
and serious labor. . 

To these suggestions can be added, and, no doubt, should be added, such self-sal 
ing and self-glorifying exercises as will delight the young and will give the celebrating S] 
of "adults full opportunity to express itself.' But surely the occasion has to be approached 
seriouslv if it is to be so treated as to produce results of any value. 

Perhaps it is not important that Xew England, as wo have known it, be preserved. Th< re 
are many who think it has already done all that it should do in guiding the manners and 
morals of the country and that the world would be better from new on if New Englan 
such, were to go quietly out of existence. Perhaps those who say this are right. Thi 
four years give us a good opportunity and the coming of 1920 a good excuse to inquire mio 
the matter honestly and diligently. 

I believe it will be possible to make this study so graphic and to engage in it 1 1 
of so many of our fellows, and especially of the young, that the study itself will in some d - 
answer the two questions already given, and will at the same time tend to do what my third 
statement suggests, increase the sum total of so much of the Xew England essence :u> has 
proved helpful. 



My suggestion is that we establish in Boston a New England Institute; that this instil 
be so carefully designed as to its chartered purposes and be placed in the hands of p< 
men and women from both East and West, so well suited to its government that it will 

at once the confidence of all who are interested in learning what New Englan ( 1 

New England has done for America, and what further good, if any. it can do. Th 

be certain very great advantages in placing the headquarters of* this institute in i 

That city is central to that vast area in which the New England-born and their di 

have, perhaps, chiefly exerted their influence. An institution established in Chicag 

out plans for the most helpful use of the interest and zeal which the approach <>i 1920 may 

easily excuse, would enjoy a certain detachment and a certain calmness of view which 

not be readily assumed in Boston. Moreover, the study of New England's influence and of 

methods for reviewing that influence might best be conducted in the heart of that region 

where that influence has been cluefly exerted and most felt. 

This institute, wherever established, will proceed at once to discover and disclose what 
New England has done, what part of its work has been most worthy, and how that work 
can be continued. 

At the very outset the institute will meet this question: New England is now, in a meas- 
ure, out of the line of the country's development; it has neither iron nor coal; it has not 
a great foreign market centre; it is being left behind, in many meanings of that phrase: now. 
how can the institute use the year 1920, with all that it may imply to every person of New 
England descent, so that it will bring to New England of to-day the greatest possible finan- 
cial, commercial, and industrial advantages? The institute should face this question frankly. 
It should not pretend to ignore it. It should openly include in it works such aetivit: 
will benefit New Ehigland's industrial conditions, and should not attempt to conceal those 
activities behind a screen of ardent expressions on Puritanism, godliness, sanctity, or culture. 
That is, the institute should have a frankly commercial side. 

The institute would at once engage the services of students, statisticians, and writers 
who would investigate and report upon the three inquiries I have above set down. This 
is not the place for detailed suggestions. Obviously, the inquiries would bo made in such 
a manner as to arouse the interest of those of New England descent wherever found, 
viously, also, they would be so conducted as to call forth criticisms, favorable and unfav- 
orable, from the more observant and studious outlander. As soon as results of inti n si 
and value were secured, the institute might well establish a journal, to be called "New Eng- 
land: 1920," which should have a wide appeal, as the product of serious study of New El j- 
land's history and influence, and for its careful and explicit statements of the plans which 
the institute would, in due course, set forth for reviewing New England's specific charac- 
teristics, if such are found to exist, and for re-establishing their influence, if such re-establish- 
ment promises on investigation to be worth while. 

On the industrial and commercial side the institute should investigate the subject^ of 
an exposition. It would undoubtedly discover that such an enterprise, if conducted 
the conventional manner, would be an utter failure. There is some evidence, however. 
that if it were made in accordance with the best pedagogical advice, and were devoted not 
to the exploitation of firms and individuals but of processes and results, and wore kept - 
small and arranged so skilfully that it would neither fatigue not bewilder, it would attract 
many and help many. It could quite easily be accompanied by an exhibit, lam' ly graphic, 
which should present New England's problems of transportation and manufacture so clearly 
as almost automatically to suggest solutions for some of them. 

The institute would make a careful study of celebrations and exhibits of all kinds, es- 
pecially in Europe. It would probably find it wise to recommend that on a large tract of 
land near Boston there be established a museum of New England farm ami community 
It was on the farm and the small village that New Englandism, so far as there ever was a 
congeries of thought, action and feeling that deserved that title, chiefly developed, disci 
itself and exerted its influence. Typical farmhouses of several periods, with accompany- 
ing buildings, would here be erected, with all their appurtenances proper to thcii lates, 
and with all their accompanying work being carried on by persons who would give themselves 
for a time to the task. Not from New England only, but from ali the West a- well, would 

i S 6 


surely come men and women, boys and girls, who would gladly give each a few weeks to 
demonstrating, in veritable copies of ancient houses, how their forbears lived among Sew 
England hills. So far as possible the farm life and the village life here re-created should 
disclose the changes wrought in them by the coming of the age of machines and of the 
ialization of labor. 

The chief value of this outdoor museum of New England's domestic, social and economic 
history would lie, not :'n the establishment and maintenance thereof, and not in the many 
thousand visits made thereto by old New Englanders and their children, but in the count- 
less minor copies thereof which the institute would cause to be set up in villages, town- and 
cities of the West where New England's descendants are influential. 

The institute, in creating the outdoor museum, would not attempt to secure and use 
original objects, entire buildings or clothing, furniture and implements: it would cause copies 
of typical originals to be made and would see to it that any group or society wishing to set 
up either a colonial room or a complete farmhouse or a group of buildings could get specific 
directions therefor and accurate copies of smaller objects at cost price. 

In addition to the outdoor museum of New England life, the institute would establish 
also an indoor museum, much wider in its scope than the one set up in the open. In 
the indoor establishment is quite fundamental to the whole enterprise as I have ventured 
to conceive it. This museum is not a museum at all in the common meaning of that word. 
It is not a collection of objects of rarity and value, expensively housed, elaborately set up in 
cases in an atmosphere thoroughly chilled by the presence and dominance of an ancient 
and now quite useless system. It is an organization of skilled students and workers who are 
studying the whole question of New England's place in America for 300 years, and are giv- 
ing out the results of that study as rapidly as possible. They are seeking for methods by 
which all that is best of New England thought and feeling may be so renewed and extended 
that it may once again lead to conduct as stimulating, practical and widely helpful as we 
believe the conduct born of New Englandism long has been. They are collecting books, 
documents, pictures and articles, by purchase, loan and gift, illustrative of New England life 
for 300 years, and they are daily using material thus gathered, not merely storing it. If 
those articles of interest and of value for the purposes they have in mind, of which it is im- 
possible for them to acquire originals, they cause copies to be made, and duplicates of these 
copies they sell or lend, as already indicated, to those who wish to set up in city, town or 
village, East or West, something reminiscent of New England, from a modest temporary 
exhibit to a complete reconstructed house. They do not stop with things illustrative of 
the daily life of early New Englanders. They attempt to gather, and to use as material for 
instruction, whatever will seem to show how "New Englandism has expressed itself in actions 
and disclosed itself in products. In the fields of literature, of the graphic arts, and of ar- 
chitecture, science and invention and discovery, they find reports, documents, pictures and 
objects, which, being sutiable arranged and labeled, and being copied, many times if need 
be, help to make clear to inquirers and observers the nature and extent of New England 

I am trying to make clear, in as few words as possible, the outlines of the suggestion 
that this New England institute should set on foot, through its studios, its correspondence. 
its journal, its teaching collections, its reproductions and its sheets of instructions, an in- 
terest on the part of all New Endanders. wherever they may be. old and young, in the recru- 
descence of the New England idea. The institute should hope and expect to lead a few- 
enthusiasts in each of a thousand villages, towns, and cities to do that which, as I am try- 
ing to suggest, will alone make a "celebration" truly worth while; that is, to set before each 
of their respective communities such literature and such groups of objects and pictun - fcs 
will lead them to attempt to live anew so much of New England life as will arouse, at least 
in the young, a keen interest in that life, and a wish to copy today so much of it as their 
judgment, their times and their temper permit. 

Let me give one very homely illustration: New England has long been notable for the 
neatness of its home grounds and of its towns and villages. This neatness is probably <-hw 
to certain qualities that lie normally in New Englandism. Our institute would tell 01 I - 
quality of neatness and would illustrate it, and would attempt to persuade those of New 


England descent in all parts of the country to practice home and civic neatness more dil- 
igently than ever before during all or a certain part of the year 1920. With the young 
especially it would happen that when they thus conduct themselves in the manner of neat- 
ness they would be helping the habit of neatness to develop in them. 

As with neatness, so with other virtues, both minor and major. And our Sew Eng- 
land institute, taking the lapse of three centuries merely as an excuse, would. during 
four years of its activities, be making a continuous effort "to produce worthy results in I 
and actions, instead of merely celebrating with piffle and bombast the life that has been 
lived, the things that have been done, and the good habits that threaten to disappear. 

The Pubiic Library, Newark. 

The Springfield Republican gave Mr. Dana's idea very hearty endorse- 
ment in the following editorial: 

A "New England Institute" 

A new turn has been given the past week to discussion of the Pilgrim tercentenary by 
a former highly-regarded resident of Springfield, John Cotton Dana. In a letter two col- 
umns in length, printed on the editorial page of the New York Times, Mr. Dana armies against 
the proposal that the event shall be celebrated by a pageant or other largo public demon- 
stration, and suggests that something shall be done with the object or reviving what he 
calls '"the New England idea." His own proposal is a "New England institute." which 
shall study the New England influence in all its manifestations in the American republic, 
and help to make that influence prevail. 

Under three heads he summarizes the proper objects of such an institute: "(1) to dis- 
cover what results of that influence have been most helpful; (2) to discover if it continues 
to this day and is helpful, and (3) to try to increase that influence." Whatever one may 
think of Ins plan for carrying out the investigation here outlined, a great number of true 
New Englanders in all parts of the country should be grateful to Mr. Dana for his vigorous 
plea that the coming observance shall be educational, and not spectacular, and that it shall 
have the large purpose of studying and, if possible, perpetuating the best of New England's 
influences in our national life. 

Mr. Dana's plan, though it may fairly be characterized as ambitious, indicates a cautious 
use of the imagination. It is carefully thought out, and is nowise impractical in its essentials. 
His institute would enlist the services of a corps of earnest students and administrators, who 
should investigate the influence of New England and make known in attractive form the 
results of their investigation. Such an institute might be established in Boston, but he is 
inclined to prefer Chicago, as being removed a sufficient distance from New England terri- 
tory, and as being in the center of "that region where that influence has been chiefly ex 
and felt." Some of his concrete proposals are a study of New England's commercial ; — 
bilities, the establishment of a paper to be called "New England. 1920," investigation ol 
the subject of an exposition in 1920 of New England exhibits throughout the West, and a 
museum of New England farm and community life, to be established near Boston. Those 
may not mean much apart from Mr. Dana's ably-reasoned statement of his project, but the 
underlying purpose, to study and disseminate the influence of New England, wiil be ap- 

Already some objections to Mr. Dana's plan have appeared. For instance, Arthur 
P^lliot Sproul of New York, writing as a man of New England birth, thinks it would be a 
mistake for New Englanders to attempt to enforce their conception of life upon the - 
ing West. He says: "The people who live in those localities— like most of the r si 
mankind — would resent the attempt to direct them in any such way. They feel C 
tent to arrange their own conditions of life, and if New Englanders who live in those com- 
munities wish to stimulate civic betterment, the one effective way to do that is by silent 


example and not be avowed instruction." This is good advice. But, of course, Mr. Dana 
means only to make western people more conscious of the debt of their communities and the 
country as a whole to the life which our ancestors lived here in New England. lh> 
if the West is the region where the New England influence mo>t prevail-, it may not be nec- 
essary to import any symbols of our eastern life into those progressive and' high-minded 
communities. Possibly we could learn from them a lesson in genial and democratic .so- 
ciability and some other lessons. 

Here, perhaps, is a suggestion by which we can profit in laying our plans for the ter- 
centenary. It is that we should raise our own life to the New England level, and not tr 
about the rest of the country. Our example is worth more than any propaganda; and. be- 
sides, no honest American of to-day can care to have the count ry*s debt to New England 
considered apart from its debt to other great colonial communities — Virginia, for example 
— or with any undue idealizing of New England life and character. There i-. to be sure, 
much historical information that should be rendered more generally accessible, and one 
function of the tercentenary, unless it entirely misses its rightful purpose, will be to inr-r^a-*-- 
by a hundredfold our knowledge of our ancestors, the lives they lived, and the projects in 
which they engaged. Especially should the characters of worthies and benefactors be stud- 
ied, for few people appreciate how much romance there is in such a book as the National 
Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

But above all there is the need of reviving the best spirit of the old New England, and 
making our people conscious that they were born into a great tradition, which the conditions 
of modern life are tending to obscure. It is not true that New England is going to seed, 
though it is correct enough to say that not a few New England communities, through econ- 
omic and social causes have gone to seed already. But there is need of a more alert con- 
sciousness and a greater desire to infuse the life of today with the old spirit. The 
Congregationalists are doing the right thing when they set up an increased membership as 
one of the goals to be attained before 1620, for it is by such measures as these that a practical 
revival of New England can be achieved. There is evidence that much thought i.- being 
given to the question of what the tercentenary can be made to mean to us, and Mr. Dana's 
letter on the editorial page of the most representative New York newspaper is proof that we 
cannot keep our celebration to ourselves if we try; and, of course, we don't want to keep any- 
thing to ourselves but our preaching. 

A letter from Arthur Elliot Sproul, referring to the Republican editorial, 
was published as follows: 

The New England Celebration. 

To the Editor of the New York Times: 

I thank you for republishing the admirable editorial of The Springfi<l>l Republican re- 
garding the suggested 'New England Institute'' as part of the coming Pilgrim tercentenary. 
Two sentences in it are so completely in harmony with my own view, as expressed in my 
recent letter to The Times, that I ask you to print them again: 

We should raise our own life to the New England level, and not trouble about the rest 
of the country. Our example is worth more than any propaganda. 

It's all there — and particularly in the final eight words. 

Arthur Elliot Sppoll. 

New York. 

These and other communications have aroused several contributors 
to an expression of opinions not wholly favorable to the idea oi a celebration 


at all and critical of New England's priority of settlement, her "pn ss 

etc. It is always interesting to "see ourselves as others" see us. as Burns 

put it, so we reprint three of those communications herewith. 

The Virginia Colony. 

To the Editor of the New York Times: 

While it is t.ue, a- Mr. Brewster states in yotv issue for Monday, that a brrfc I 
remains as the only surviving object of old Jamestown, yet that town was a place of im- 
portance for nearly one bundled years after the first settlement. Newport News 
tablished as a place of habitation before the Pilgrims ever thousht of ei 
Brewster will visit that spot, he will find there over 2.5,000 people, who are s 
link in a chain of community life which has never been broken from that day to this 
town alone would knock to pieces the quibble which Mr. Brewster sugg 
town in order to give a precedence to Plymouth, which Plymouth itself never cl Prob- 

ably no assertion has ever been mere fully disproved than Berkeley's that Virginia had no 
free schools in his day. At the very time he spoke the Symmes and Eaton f; - wt-re 

in active operation, and have continued in existence down to the present dav, as any 
will see who visits Hampton. This old slander is constantly turning up in the moutl 
those ignorant of the Virginian colonial history. The number of the latter north of Man- 
land seems to increase rather than to decline. 

PiiiLir Alexander Brcce. 

Bennington, Vt. 

Jamestown And Plymouth. 

To the Editor o r The Ace* Yoth Times: 

In an editorial article, ''Pilgrim Commemoration,'' the writer refers to the "arrival 
of the Mayflower people'' as "the first lasting English colony founded in what was to ! 
United States." This, of course, is an oversight: the writer has merely overlooked the 
that the permanent colony at Jamestown, Va., was established thirteen years and six m aths 
before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth, and that when they landed there in Dec. i. r, 
1G20, more than a thousand English, men, women, and children, were living in \" . . 
under a settled representative government, with their own laws made in their own i. 
of Burgesses; and that other thousands had, during the trying years since 1607, given up 
their lives in Virginia in laying the foundations of "what was to be the United St: 

It will be an interesting part of the commemoration to call to mind the part which the 
Virginia Company of London had in the outfroimi of the Pilgrims- that, for instance, in 1617, 
their representative^, Robert Cushman and John Carver, apoiied to Sir Edwin Sandys, 
a most influential member of the Virginia Company, for help, which resulted in their receiv- 
ing a patent from the Virginia Company, issued in the name of John Wincap, and sealed 
June 9, 1619. And thus it was that the Mayflower sailed under the auspices of the Virginia 
Company, and is reported in the ''Official Note of Shipping," which was ma 
Court of the Virginia Company which met early in 1621. Whin the Pilgrims «i I 
on arriving on this side, not to so on to Virginia, but to stop in New England, then, of c ik 
the patent was not used; but it had served its purpose in giving them legal status :is colo- 
nists when they left England. 

It may also be recalled that at least two of those who "came over in the Mayflower" 
had already been in Virginia. John Clarke, the pilot of the Mayflower, had made many 
voyages to Virginia, and finally returned to Virginia, and settled and died there. Si 
Hopkins had been an old planter in Virginia as early as 1010, and had later returned to Eng- 
land; while Christopher Martin, who was Governor of the Mayflower, ami Treasurer for the 
Pilgrims, was a member of the Virginia Company and owned land in Virginia. 


In commemorating the influence of the Pilgrims, there will he much to Ik- said, and in 
this connection, also, it will be well not to forget the influence of that other type of man 
and of character which was developed in the older colony. Virginia. Of the Mother of Col- 
onies and States, the gifted and generous Lowell has said: 

"She gave us that imperial gentleman. 
And gave to us a nation, giving him." 

We may well be thankful and proud of the varied and rich products of our great coun- 
try, above all of her great men, and of the histroy they have made. 

C. Braxtox Bryan*. 
Petersburg, Va. 

Why Not a Xew York Institute? 

To the Editor of The New York Times: 

I have read the numerous articles appearing on the editorial page of your paper favor- 
ing the idea promulgated by my esteemed friend, John Cotton Dana. Librarian of rh<- 
Public Library of Newark, of the establishment of a New England Institute, which ''should 
investigate the influence of New England and make known in attractive form thr> results 
of their investigation." Might not the investigation prove to be less attractive than our 
New England friends are led to expect? They must remember that New England has been 
especially fortunate in her press agents, but, like those of others, all their stories will nor 
bear close examination. 

This is particularly true of the Colonial and Revolutionary periods. Those interested 
in research pointing to these periods have found that Xew England's press agents were very 
much like those of the present day. Poor, dear old Xew York, you never were a very good 
advertiser, always allowing your deeds to be judged by their results. Still, more history \vi< 
made within our boundaries than in all the other States combined. More important events 
occurred within the limits of New York City than in any other in the whole Union. More 
epoch-making meetings were held within the walls of the Merchant's Coffee Hou<e 'located 
southeast corner of Wall Street and Water Street) than in any other building on the face 
of the whole continent. 

Then why not establish an institute devoted to the promulgation of Xew York's in- 
fluence? Xew York has grown from one of the smallest cities in the Union to the largest 
in the world, which cannot have been from mere haphazard luck. Should there be such 
an institute, this investigation would establish facts that would astonish the world: and yet 
New York remains without one day devoted to any event occurring within its boundaries, 
nor in memory of one of its great men. A. Wake max. 

Secretary Committee of- Xine. 

New York. 




Published by the Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass.US.V 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


Deerfield, Mas3 Salem, Mass. Salem, Masa. 


Bangor, Me. Salem, Masa. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 


Qlmttrnts nf tljifi Ssiiu? 

Hector St. John, An Old Evasive Planter, Frank B. Sanborn 163 

Witchcraft Not Extinct, Albert W. Dennis . . . . 1 84 

Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 189 

The Writing Habit in New England, Albert W. Dennis . 205 

Criticism and Comment . . . . . . . . 211 

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Entered as second-class matter, March 13, 1908, at the post-office, at Salem, Mass., under the Act of Cv^r.cros*. 
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Read Before the Old Planters' Society of Salem, in Boston, Nov. 15, 1910 

By F. B. Sanborn, of Concord. 

Ladies, and Gentlemen; Old Planters came from Europe to New Eng- 
land and to Canada for various reasons, good, bad and indifferent: some 
to improve their fortunes, some to worship God in the way their own con- 
sciences approved; others from a mixture of these and other reasons. Still 
others came because they were searched for at home, and if found, might be 
persecuted, either for political or religious offenses, like the Protestants 
of France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1(5S2, or the Reg- 
icides of the English Revolution of 1040-1660, which Clarendon styles the 
"Great Rebellion." These migrated, for the most part in the 17th century; 
the French earlier than the English, and going mainly to what are now called 
Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the coast of Maine. The Eng- 
lish, a little later came to Virgina, New York and New England; like your 
ancestors, they were apt to settle in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hamp- 
shire and Rhode Island and they were either fishermen, then a very pro- 



fitable pursuit, or, like those Judean fisherman, of whom they read much in 
their Bibles, they combined fishing with Christian apostleship, or disciple- 
ship; and in each Colony might set up a different sect of Protestant Christ- 
ianity. This peculiarity led them to come over in groups, either with s 
English, Dutch or French Protestant pastor, or to join the Colony in which 
such pastors had made their permanent settlememt. 

In the 18th Century, when the Colonies had grown larger as well as more 
numerous, the motives for emigration, the means of occupation, and the 
facilities for rambling about in a new country, were much increased, and 
all sorts of adventures and adventurers appeared, in the most staid and 
sober communities. Many came as soldiers, or enlisted after their arrival, 
and, when the terms of their military service ended, might find themselves 
settled in some locality far from their original emigrant abode. One of 
these 18th Century Planters, who gloried in the occupation of a Farmer, 
and wrote a very popular book on that subject, — the "Letters of an Ameri- 
can Farmer," so wove a veil of mystery about his departure from his native 
France and his adopted England, the time of his arrival, the place of his 
abode, and the nature of his occupation and his social relations, that it 
is only of late, a century and a half after we know he was in our hemisphere, 
that we have learned how he got here and why he came. This old, evasive 
Planter, calling himself Hector St. John, and buying land and writing a 
famous book under that name, found himself, at the age of five-and-forty, 
entitled to another name; and he sold the farm which he had bought under 
his first name, recording the Deed by his second appellation, and giving 
his three children, born on that farm, the French name of Creveeoeur. though 
they had been educated here in Boston as Fanny and Lewis St. John. Both 
the father and the children were such interesting persons, that, for mure 
than 100 years, the world has been talking and writing about them; though 
their own descendants in Paris have but recently found out what happened 
to them when their friend Dr. Franklin was printing Poor Richard's Al- 
manac in Philadelphia, and his unknown fellow-author was living obscure- 
ly in that Quaker City. 


Hector St. John was born in Caen, a city of Normandy, in January 
1735, as Michel Guillaume San Jean de Creveeoeur, the son of noble par- 
ents, of a family famous in France for centuries at that time. He had a 
Latin and French education at a Jesuit school in Normandy, and. as a lad 
of 16, went over to Salisbury in England, to reside with some distant kins- 
women named Mutet, who are supposed to have been French Protestants 
(Hugenots) of the persecuted sect to which belonged the Martineaus and 
Bosanquets of England, and the Bowdoins, Sigourneys, Jays. Delanceya 
and Laurenses of New England, New York and South Carolina. How- 
he left England and first found himself in America, is yet unknown, and 
there are two or three different theories on the subject, held by his father, 
the Marquis de Creveeoeur, and by his great grandson and biographer 
Robert de Creveeoeur, who published his biography and portrait at Paris 

In the 3'ear 1772, his father, the Marquis, requested the French ambas- 
sador in London to obtain from the English Foreign Office or Plantation 
Office, a certificate of his son's life or death at that date, — not having heard 
from him in America for five years previous. He accompanied his request 
with a description of the young man's person and features, even to his freckle-, 
and added : 

"Leaving France for England 18 years ago (1754) he first lived with some 
old maids named Mutet in the town of Salisbury. Through them he became 
acquainted with persons who had business in Philadelphia; and for eight 
or nine years he lived in Pennsylvania, at the city of Philadelphia." (This 
would bring the youth to about 17G3, — he being then 2S years old.) 

"He was in Philadelphia in the capacity of partner or agent of a mer- 
chant, (name and kind of merchandize unknown), and the last heard from 
him was in 1767. He must know English very well, at least. — he so professes. 
It is unknown whether he is married, or if he has been; we only know that. 
shortty after he reached England, he was to marry the only daughter ot a 
merchant. But she died before the marriage; and it was this fact that pro- 
cured for him the interest he has in Philadelphia. 


Important family concerns require the information here sought; and it 
is hoped that it can be furnished to the French Ambassador." 

Now the descendants of St. John in Paris, in possession of his family 
papers, do not seem to have had this document, when his great-grand-on 
published, in French, St. John's 'Life and Works' in 1883. They probably 
know it now, from Miss Julia Post Mitchell, who has finished his biography 
in English, and published it in New York last summer. She discovered 
the document (in French) in London a few years since: just as she discovered 
other important contemporary documents about St. John in old New York, 
which disclose his social and political affinities as a naturalized citizen of the 
Province of New York, after he was naturalized under a special act of the 
Provincial legislature in 1765-6. His French biographer, without pro- 
fessing to know with certainty when he left England and came to America, 
yet believed that he came first to Canada, and that, when the French and 
Indian war came on. in 1754-5, in which Braddock was slain in Pennsylvania. 
and Montcalm commanded in Canada, St. John, under his father's name 
of Crevecoeur, served as an officer and engineer, under Montcalm, and was 
at the Indian massacre of Fort William Henry in 1757. A French Lieuten- 
ant named Crevecoeur did serve in the regiment of Sarre, — and though he 
was born in Paris and not in Normandy, and was three years younger than 
our hero, his French biographer believes the two Crevecoeurs were one and 
the same. This is every way improbable, and Miss Mitchell cannot believe 
it, in the face of the precise French hue-and-cry for the son of the Marquis* 
which she, and she alone, discovered in London, where his French descen- 
dant never thought of looking. He did discover that the Mutet ladies were 
related to a sister-in-law of the Marquis, who was St. John's aunt. 

Assuming that the hue-and-cry is genuine, and that implies a serious 
breach between the Marquis and his only son, — what was the occasion 
of it? It was important enough to cause the son to break oil correspon- 
dence, direct and indirect, with his father, to get himself made an American 
citizen, and to buy a farm and cultivate it for several years, with no appar- 
ent intention of going back to reside in France. My theory of the cause 
is this: 


The proposed bride of St. John in England was doubtless a Protestant, 
and probably below the Norman Crevecocurs in rank; it would then be 
unlikely that the Marquis would consent to the match. His refusal would 
make the marriage unlawful, as French law then stood. This may have 
been the reason for postponing the wedding for years, and giving time for 
the early death of the English bride, whose relatives were engaged in the 
American trade. Meanwhile the youth had completed an English education, 
in mathematics and geometry, so that, in Pennsylvania, he took up the 
business of a land-surveyor, in which he exercised his talent in drawing, 
to make maps and draw profile portraits, like my Grandfather's friend, 
Akin, the Newburyport engraver of 1808; who in that year drew profile wa- 
ter color-portraits of my grandparent?, in Hampton Falls. X. H. and very 
good likenesses. St. John seems to have been an artist rather better than 
Akin, but did not use his talent in caricature, as Akin did. His descendants 
in Paris sent me a photograph of the landscape which St. John drew of his 
house and field at Blooming-Grove, in Orange County, New York, with a 
negro plowman breaking up the sward, with a great plow, and the boy, Philip 
Lewis riding on the beam of the plow, in a chair fastened upon it; while the 
father and mother, under a tree of the Pine-Hill Farm, watch the pleasure 
of the three-year old child. 

I had this pretty view engraved for a volume of the Proceedings of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society of 190G, and also for the Pennsylvania 
Historical Magazine, to whose readers I introduced the French biogrj ; y 
of St. John, whose one English volume displayed so much knowledge of 
farming in Pennsylvania, and of the good Quakers his contemporaries. 

In the family biography it is assumed that the two Crevecocurs were 
identical; and the family professed not to know the date, nor the way by 
which our St. John (as he always called himself before 1781), reached C 
They have a tradition that he was in Lisbon after the great earthquake of 
1755. At that time, according to this statement made by his father, St. 
John was living in England, having gone there in 1751. He says himself, 
in one passage, that he went there in 1751. He evidently did not go to Phil- 


adelphia as a merchant before 1758, and he went there from England, and 
not from Canada. There is no evidence that he was in Normandy between 
1754 and 1781, and he was plainly at variance with his father for many years. 
Probably, as I have said it was upon the point of his marriage in England, 
with a person not of his own rank nor of his father's Catholic religion. He 
did actually marry in New York, a French Protestant, Mehitabel Tippet, 
whom he may have been wooing in 1767, when he finally broke off communi- 
cation with his father. He was married in 1769, and in 1772, when his father 
asked a certificate of his life or death, he was cultivating his farm in Orange 
County, which he bought in 1769 (120 acres for S875, with a good house) 
under the name of Hector St. John, of Ulster County, 'gentleman'. He 
sold it in 1785, under the same name, for SI 250, but he then signed as 'St. 
John de Crevecoeur'. 

Now what were the "exigent family concerns" which made his father 
desire a certificate of his life or death? Apparently, a wish to establish his 
own title, as Marquis de Crevecoeur, to the fief in Xormandy which had 
usually gone with the title. It had so gone to the two deceased uncles of 
Hector St. John, who were older than his father. If the Marquis of 1772 
could show that he had then a son living, capable of continuing the entail. 
the property, as well as the title, might come to St. John's father. For 
private reasons, which then seemed good, St. John wished to keep his marriage 
from the knowledge of his father; later, for reasons equally good, he wished 
to establish the fact of his legal marriage in New York, and the legitimate 
birth of his three children, two of whom, Fanny St. John, and Philippe Louis 
were educated in Boston, as I showed in my Historical paper of 1906. 

Through Mr. Turner, an American in Paris, originally a resident oi 
St. Johnsbury, Vt. (named for St. John by his friend Ethan Allen). I was. 
in 1905 in correspondence with the Crevecoeurs of Paris, ami was import- 
ing, through Mr. Goodspeed of Park St. Boston, copies of the family bio- 
graphy, which were sold only by the widow of the deceased biographer. 
Prof. Trent of Columbia brought the book to the notice of Miss Mitchell. 
a post-graduate student of his, and directed her attention to the broad field 


of inquiry which the subject opened to her. She accepted the task in L907, 
and after half a dozen years, and while she was herself a resident of an Eng- 
lish College in China, Prof. Trent carried her volume through the | 
at New York. 

From the French biography she learned that he had been collecting 
facts about the English and French Colonies in America, for many ye re, 
and had them written down in English, — having, by long disuse, lust the 
facility of writing good French, though he spoke it colloquially; that tl 
manuscripts, in the form of letters addressed to his friend, William Seton 
of New York, a Loyalist, he carried with him to New York City in 177'.*. 
where they were inspected by Gen. Patterson, who arrested St. John as 
a suspected spy of our French allies, and he was imprisoned there for sev- 
eral months. Finally, upon the surety of his friend Seton, Sir Henry 
Clinton allowed him to sail for France by way of Ireland and England, to 
rejoin his father, "William Augustin de Crevecoeur of Pierpont, near Caen 
in Normandy. He arrived there in August 17S1, having in London sold 
to a bookseller, Davies, enough of his manuscripts to make up the volume 
of "Letters of an American Farmer," which Davies published in 17S2. It 
soon became one of the 'best sellers' in England; was reprinted 
in Dublin, and translated into Dutch and German, and in 17S1 appeared at 
Paris in a French translation, supervised by St. John himself, though he 
was not yet capable of writing correct French. 

The version of 1784 was much larger than the English original, and was 
still more enlarged by a third volume, of new matter, in 17S7. The var- 
iations are striking. . In 1779, he professed to Gen. Patterson in New York 
City to be a British Loyalist, — and his chapter in the London 'Letters' re- 
vealed him in that capacity Gen. Patterson had reported. 

(July 8, 1779) "Mr. Hector St. John immediately came to me, and I 
directed Captain Adye to attend him to the house of the Revd. Mr. Brown 

where he is used to reside when he comes to New York He put into their 

hands a bundle of papers containing certificates, etc. relative to his having 
been imprisoned and otherwise ill-used for his attachment to the Govern- 


merit; they likewise found a small trunk which he had put into the care of 
Mr. Brown. It was opened and examined in my presence, and contained 
a great number of manuscripts; the general purport of which appear- to be 
a sort of irregular Journal of America, and a State of the Times of some 
years back; interspersed with occasional Remarks, philosophical and Polit- 
ical; the tendency of the latter is to favor the side of the Government, and 
to throw odium on the proceedings of the opposite Party, and upon the 
Tyranny of their Popular Government 

The account he gives of himself is that he is a native of Caen in Nor- 
mandy, but came into the country many years ago, and was naturalized: 
that he first went into the Mercantile Line, but afterwards bought a farm 
in Orange Count}', on which he settled; but was obliged to quit it about six 
months ago, and leave his family and property behind, on account of the 
persecution he underwent from his attachment to Government; and that 
during his leisure hours he amused himself with making such literary obser- 
vations as occurred to him: which he is convinced will, upon perusal do him 
credit, in the opinion of those attached to the King's government: has never, 
kept them secret from those of his acquaintance who were thus attached: 
but took pains and found great difficulty, whilst among the Rebels, to con- 
ceal them.'' 

This information he enlarged upon in a letter to Roger Morris, to whom 
he applied for rations as an impoverished Loyalist: 

"Like a great many others, I have relinquished the conveniences of life, 
— Property, Servant, etc; these incidents however, have now become so 
common that I am -very conscious they are less thought of. So many sac- 
rifices of the same kind have been made, that the calamities of each Indi- 
vidual seem to be drowned in the general mass; yet they are not loss felt by 
each sufferer. Myself and son are now become Refugees in this Town: 
and I find myself obliged to apply to you for the indulgence of Rations for 
us both, from this date, (Feb. 17, 1779), — the only reward of fouryears of con- 
tumely received, of Fines imposed, imprisonments, etc. The enclosed let- 
ters from persons better known to you than myself, will. I hope, convince 
you that my request is founded on Necessity." 


His friend, Seton, endorsed this request, and spoke of St. John as "a 
man of Letters, and a very accurate topographical knowledge of this Country." 

The Trinity Church wardens employed him to survey their city lands, 
and for doing so, and making a field-book for them, he was paid some §50; 
but the work almost cost his life. He used white handkerchiefs for signals 
on his staves, and the drunken sailors who saw them, mistook them for the 
white flags of France, and would have put him to death. 

The parallel between St. John and his successor in Xature-studies, 
Henry Thoreau, became closer from the fact that Thoreau was for ten years 
a land-surveyor, and map-maker. Both deserved the praise of the German 
poet Baumbach, and regret of kindred: 

Baumbach thus addressed his rambling friend; 

They tell me Thou hast talents rare, 

Would make thee shine in Fashion's mazes; 

The favor of the Great, the Fair, 

Full oft to wealth and honor raises; 

But thou hadst rather wander free 

In field and wood, as roam the breezes: 

To loiter on the grassy lea, 

And list the birds,-thy fancy pleases. 

Let Friends, Cousins all deplore 

That wayward life,-what recks the Rover? 

The Bee doth gather honey more 

Than in the hothouse, -from wild Clover. 

Thoreau spent but a single night in the Concord Gaol; but St. John, 
after a year and a half among his loyalist friends in New York City, half 
the time in close confinement as a French spy, found he had impaired his 
robust constitution, and planted the seeds of his last illness, ere he reached 
70. This was in 1813; but before that he had a series of tips and downs, 
adversity and prosperity, enough to fill out a three-volume novel. He tin- 


ally got away from New York in a fleet of 80 English ships, convoyed against 
Paul Jones by war vessels, on his way to meet his father, whose mes 
of 1772 he seems to have tardily received. He was shipwrecked on the [rish 
coast, lost some of his manuscripts, spent the winter of 1780-S1 in In »1 
and the next spring reached London, and offered a third part of his trunk- 
full of English essays and letters to Davies (T and L) the booksellers in 
the Strand, who paid 30 guineas for what was printed in 1782. after correct- 
ing the English, as the "Letters of an American Farmer." He reached his 
father's chateau of Pierpont, which now forms part of a Commune named 
Lanthueil, near Caen. He had been there but few days, when he went to 
the seashore one morning, and there found five Massachusetts naval officers, 
just landed from the English Channel, and an English prison, with very little 
clothing or food, and without one word of French. St. John interpreted for 
them, took them to dine at his father's chateau, (where the fatted calf was 
no doubt killed for these five adopted Prodigal Sons), and they were then 
provided with furnished lodgings, in the town of Caen. Dr. Franklin at 
Paris was duly notified, and asked to send them back to Massachusetts 
in the first returning vessel, — which he did. This at once brought St. John 
into the vast correspondence of Franklin, and afterwards of Jefferson, his 
successor in the French Mission. 

The names of the five seamen taken in charge by St. John, and com- 
mended to Franklin, were George Little of Xewburyport, Samuel Wales, 
Clement Lemon, Alexander Storey and Isaac Collins. Little seems to have 
been a kinsman of Gustavus Fellowes, a prosperous mariner-merchant of 
Boston. They were sent to Xewburyport by Dr. Franklin, who was puzzled 
to find that his friend, the famous Mine. Houdetot, spoke of their patron 
as 'Crevecoeur', while he signed himself St. John. He explained himself thus; 

"Yes Sir, I am the same person; the reason of the mistake proceeds from 
the singularity of the French customs, which render their names almost 
arbitrary, and lead them to forget their family ones. It is in consequence 
of this that there are more alias dictumss in this, than in any other country 
in Europe. I am so great a stranger to the manners of this, though my 


native country, — having quitted it very young,— that I never dreamed 
I had any other than the old family name of St. John. I was greatly as- 
tonished when, at my late return, I saw myself under the necessity of be- 
ing called by that of Crevecoeur.'' 

Madame d'Houdetot agrees with her friend the Marquis, and with his 
son, that the youth left France in 1754; she adds that she has always heard 
his father speak well of him, — which may have been out of politeness or 
a sense of duty. He afterwards formally consented to his son's marriage 
with a Protestant.* 

By this time, say January 1785, when he was just 50 years old, St. John 
de Crevecoeur, had passed through the good and evil of civilized and savage 
life quite thoroughly. Like poor Thekla in Schiller's drama, which was 
contemporary with the stress of St. John's career, among soldiers at war, 
navigators, farmers, merchants, Dukes, Princesses and red Indians, monks 
and Quakers, this Norman gentleman-farmer and philantropical lover of 
wild nature, could have sung, — for he doubtless was musical as well as artistic, 

Du Heilige, Rufe dein Kind zurueck! 

Ich habe genossen das irdische Gluck, 
Ich habe gelebt und geliebet. 

But he had still to go through thirty years of the wild weather of the 
French Revolution, — that "general upset," — and the Napoleonic glories 
and downfalls, — dying at last in 1813 just after the awful Russian disaster. 
the retreat from Moscow, had almost deprived him of his son Louis', who had 
begun life riding on his father's plow-beam, not far from the banks of the 

*There is every reason to believe that St. John, — the only name by which he was then 
known, — visited Nantucket and Boston before his marriage in 1700. and his settlement as 
a farmer at Blooming-Grove in Orange County. He long afterwards came to Boston in 
1784, in search of his two children, Fanny and Louis, who had been brought to Boston 
from Westchester, N.Y. and adopted by the generous Boston sea-captain, Gustayus Fellowes. 
They were educated in Boston for several years: but afterwards went with their Fathei 
France, where the family lived and died, — the descendants of Louis still living in Paris. Ten 
years ago, in the proceedings of the Historical Society. I gave an account of this romantic 
incident in the life of these children, — one of whom, Fanny St. John had already been the 
heroine of a little book by Miss Emily Deledernier, a grandaughter of Captain Fellowes. 
This book, published in 1874, is now in demand, but is out of print. 


Hudson. He remained in his interesting consulate, — sometimes at New 
York, and then at Paris, until 1792, — when the Reign of Terror carried to 
the guillotine, or banished from France, many of his good friends, and put 
his own life in danger. He was preserved by the influence of his son-in-law 
Otto, who became a favorite of Napoleon for a time, as he had been of Tallej'- 
rand; but sometimes St. John had to join his son Ally, at Hamburg, — and 
when Otto was minister resident at Munich in Bavaria, St. John went there 
to reside for three years. This brought him into close acquaintance with 
a native American scientific man, second only to Franklin in the practical ap- 
plications of Science, — Count Rumford, who in early life was an apothe- 
cary's apprentice in Salem. Young Ben Thompson had become a Count 
of the Holy Roman Empire, and had also grappled with the problems of pov- 
erty and vice in iuc capital of Bavaria, with much success for the time being. 
Like St. John, he had been an American loyalist, but might easily have been 
persuaded to be a patriot, as St. John became, after 17S0; and to him, while 
St. John had been consul at New York, President Washington had offered 
the first headship of our military school at West Point, which Rumford de- 
clined. His New r Hampshire wife, the first Countess Rumford. had died 
in the New Hampshire Concord, and he had made an unhappy (wealthy) 
second marriage with Lavoisier's widow in Paris. 

Otto, who in 1790 married St. John's daughter, Fanny, was of nearly 
twice her age, and was a German, from Baden, but a French citizen. He 
was born in 1754, the exact age of Henry Thoreau's grandfather John, whose 
vernacular was also French of the Channel Islands, and who became a Bos- 
tonian before our Revolution. Otto was sent to the French legation in 
Philadelphia during the French alliance, when Luzerne was minister resi- 
dent; and in New York he took the place of Luzerne during that nobleman's 
absence, and lived 'in much splendor there, in Washington's presidency. 
He 'had first married Elizabeth Livingston, in March, 17S7, who died in the 
following December. During the summer of that year, Dr. Manasseh Cut- 
ler, a Massachusetts savant, concerned in the settlement of southern Ohio, 
called at his legation in Queen Street, New York, and thus described him; 



"He received us very politely, and was exceedingly sociable; he speaks good 
English, and has a truly philosophic mind. Although he is not the minister 
plenipotentiary (for there is none at present from France) he acts as such, 
and lives in the style of a nobleman." 

Otto married Fanny St. John, April 13, 1790, at St. Peter's church; 
among others at the wedding were Jefferson, then Secretary of State, who 
had met St. John in France, Gov. Trumbull of Connecticut, Congressman 
Wadsworth from Hartford, his old friend Seton, Judge Richard Morris 
of New York, and quite likely, Lady Temple of Plymouth, a daughter of 
Col. George Watson, who had known Fanny when she was a schoolgirl in 
Boston. She is described as very charming at the age of 18, when she was 
visiting Col/ Wadsworth's family in Hartford, where General Knox called 
for her in his family coach, and escorted her to her father's in New York. 
He wrote, (Nov. 16, 1788) : 

"Mrs. Knox writes to me that it is Air. St. John's desire I should escort 
his daughter, Miss St. John, from Hartford to Xew York. This I shall 
do with pleasure, if it is convenient to her; as Mr. James Jarvis, his lady, 
my daughter, Miss Moore, and myself go on in a large coach, which will 
carry six persons." 

A little later in the former season of 1781-82, this same young lady, at 
then aged 12, drove in a sleigh through Hartford to Boston, under the es- 
cort of Captain Fellowes, escaping thus from poverty and cold in West- 
chester, N. Y. to warmth and wealth in the house of a Boston merchant. 
Fanny remembered that journey, better, I dare say, than the drive with 
Gen. Knox and his daughter, six years later; for she told her father in 17S4; 

"I got into the strange man's sleigh with the greatest eagerness, for I 
thought it would take me away from the place where I had lost my mother, 
and had suffered so many things. O Father! you don't know how good and 
warm those clothes were which the good man, whom God sent to us. brought 
with him. I hugged myself with joy when I had put them on. You 
yourself could not have been kinder than this blessed man was. in our 
whole journey. When we had a big river to cross on the ice. which he 


knew gave me a great fright, he always told us a pretty story, to take our 
minds off and. shorten the time. When we got to Hartford, some of his 
friends there asked him, "what have you got in your sleigh 9 '' "Two lost 
children" he said, — "I lost them somehow, and have just got 'em hack. 
I am taking them to Boston, where my wife will soon make them disre- 
member all they had to bear. We have seven children there now, and 
these little stray lambs will make the count nine." 

"That's just what he said." 

The accounts of Mademoiselle de Crevecoeur, by those who saw her. 
were very nattering, and recall the description the Marquis gave of his 
truant son in 1772. The Fellowes family, who long corresponded with her, said : 

"She had a high forehead, crowned by a mass of rich auburn hair: eyes 
of a blue so dark that they seemed almost black, and eyebrows darker than 
her hair. Also a fine straight nose, a mouth not too small for expression, 
teeth even and white, and a full Norman shape. Her distinguished man- 
ners, with a mind of a high order, made .her universally attractive." 

Her miniature was made in Boston and exchanged for one of Miss Fel- 
lows, her foster-sister, who went back with Fanny and her father to New 
York in 1785; but the two girls continued to live together in Boston during 
the father's absence in France in 1786-7. Fanny's letters, says her romanc- 
ing biographer, "were of the most delightful character, containing, as fete 
as 1810, accounts of court life in Vienna, and touching on important European 
topics, often accompanied with beautiful gifts." She also ascribes to Fanny 
a girlish love affair in Boston, with one of her teachers, of which we hear 
nothing elsewhere. 

During St. John's life in Munich, early in Napoleon's reign as emperor. 
he made good use of his three Bavarian years, to make other acquaintances 
than Count Rumford, from the Prince, Maximilian, to the artists and hus- 
bandmen; and he there collected engravings and wrote manuscripts, many 
of which seem to be now in the possession of Henri Cluzant of Cabexac 
in the Gironde, who wishes to sell them in America. They will be shown 
in Bordeaux, at the American Consulate, to any American wishing to pur- 
chase them. 


Two incidents in St. John's earlier and later American life were interr-t- 
ingly described by him, but are not generally known, — his winter among 
the Christian Mohawk Indians near Oswegatchie, on the St. Lawrence, 
about 1763, and his visit to Niagara in the summer of 1784. 

This adventure with the Indians, like several other interesting inci- 
dents in his adventurous early life, is not easily dated; but it was after he 
had first visited Quebec and Montreal, and before he had seen much of Ver- 
mont, which he seems to have first visited in 17G4. We may therefore fix 
it, until better informed, in the winter of 1763-64, after the English 
conquest of Canada, and about the time of the Conspiracy of Pontiac. St. 
John was crossing the St. Lawrence, or more likely going down its broad 
waters to Montreal, when, in the Lachine Rapids, his canoe was overset, 
his weapons and provisions were lost, and it was with some difficulty that 
he and his Indain guide and companions escaped drowning. The}* came 
to land on the New York shore, and found themselves, as winter was com- 
ing on, in a dense forest, without food and without the means of making 
a fire. They decided to seek shelter by going down stream, and, for fear 
of getting lost in the pathless woods, to keep the great river in sight on their 
left. They had to subsist on a few fish that they caught with their hands, 
and must eat raw, and they must protect themselves from the cold at night, 
and from wild beasts, as best they could. Their fish were almost gone > 
and their strength well nigh exhausted, when they seemed to see in the sky 
faint indications of a distant smoke. Moving in that direction, and shout- 
ing as loud as their feeble force would allow, they finally heard an answer- 
ing hail. They were near the Oswegatchie river, and there Sir William 
Johnson, or some other friend of the Mohawks, had located a camp of the 
Christian Indians a few years before. One of the tribe met them, gave 
them welcome, and took them into the camp; feeding them liberally, on 
game and the corn and potatoes they had that year raised. They invited 
St. John, the only white man in the party to join their tribe; and the women 
painted his face, decked his hair with feathers, and put Indian garments 
upon him. They told him he could not get to Montreal before winter should 


set in, and that he had better make his winter-quarters with them; which 
he did, and says he passed a rude but wholesome and not unpleasant winter 

His visit to Niagara, which he was one of the first tourists to describe 
detail, was in the summer of 1784, when he was in the first year of his 
French Consulate at the City of New York. His long description of the 
famous Falls was published by Prof. Marshall of Buffalo, in the New York 
Magazine of History in 1847, and may be compared with the much shorter 
description of Niagara by Thoreau, as he first saw this wonder of the world 
when he was on his way to Minnesota, in the spring of 1861. St. John's 
description is much more in detail, and is one of the fullest that has been 
made by a good observer, up to the year 1784. 

How well St. John understood the Colonies to which he had emigrated, 
and in which he travelled, traded and farmed for alternate years, may be 
seen from a short dramatic essay of his on "The Founding of Socialborough," 
which he located in the Mohawk River region of New York, not very far 
from Albany, some time about 1759. He introduces a German, a French- 
man, an Englishman, a Scot, and an Irishman, who each tells his story of 
migration, with the reasons for it. The Frenchman may be said to give 
what may have been a common chronicle of Huguenot experience and ad- 
venture, in some of the provinces of France, in the 18th Century, — perhaps 
at the earlier migration of the Tippet family, whom he found in Ulster or 
Orange County. 

The Frenchman's Story at Albany. 

"It is a crime in France, now for these many years, not to profess the 
national religion. Sometimes the indulgence of the King, the piety of the 
parish priest, or the progress of common sense, protects us from the fury 
of intolerance; otherwise the sword of the law hangs over our heads. My 
father, after passing several years of his youth in Ireland, returned to 
France, where he married, and set up a considerable manufacture of woolens, 
by the use of the fine wools of Ireland. He turned over to us, some seven 
years ago, the whole of that business, and devoted himself to the fertiliza 


tion of some poor and arid lands he had bought. This miracle of industry 
he effected by digging wells from which he drew the water that fertilized his 
soil. The trees he had planted were just beginning to attract coolness by 
their shade, and to give a start to verdure. We obeyed the laws, and Heaven 
seemed to smile on our toil. In the meantime we had heard that several 
faraway regions, inhabited by our brethren, had since 1743, I know not why, 
become victims of a severe persecution. Suddenly that storm drew near 
our region; and almost two years ago we were on the point of seeing our 
wives and children taken from us and put into convents. We chose to aban- 
don everything, sooner than suffer so great a misery. To do this we con- 
verted a part of our merchandise into bills of exchange, and. August 17 oi 
this year, we abandoned our farms, houses and shops, and reached the port 
of X. where we were lucky enough to find a vessel ready to make sail for 
Dublin. My poor mother could not survive the sorrows and regrets of 
so great a sacrifice; and my father seemed ready to follow her to the tomb. 

Hardly were we landed, however, when the kind hospitality of the Irish 
provided for our most pressing needs. Several of the first citizens of Dub- 
lin came forward to encourage us, and offered us a second fatherland. In- 
stead of runaway foreigners, we were surrounded in a few days by Irish 
descendants of French Protestants, formerly driven out of France like our- 
selves, and for the same cause; but my father, enfeebled in health, often 
sighed for the sunshine of our province, and the asylum he had prepared 
for his old age. At last, by the aid of our new friends, we acquired in the 
vicinity of Waterford the lease for 66 years of a considerable estate. As 
for me, I offered to go to Placentia in Newfoundland, where I had mercan- 
tile connections . My father approved my plan, gave me his blessing, and 
687 guineas as my share of the remains of our fortune. 

Hardly had I sec foot on shore at Newfoundland when I perceived how 
little to my taste were the eternal fogs, and the chill climate of my new abode ; 
with its tumult of waves and winds, and its disgusting preparation oi salt- 
ing the codfish. I was sighing for another place when they brought me 
word of a New York vessel just arrived, with a load of fruit and provisions. 


Surprispd was I at going on board, to see there, an assemblage of the finest 
gifts of Pomona and Ceres. 

"Are all these goods" said I to the captain, "so very abundant in the 
land you come from?" 

"Yes" said he, "as you may see by the price we paid for them to the 
producers," — showing me the bill of sale. 

"It is a goodly country then!" continued I. 

"It is so in general; but there, as elsewhere, are regions more fertile 
and less so." "And how how are foreigners welcomed there?" 

"Extremely well; it is everybody's country, and by that means it grows 
in population every day; though we now have a stock of people which would 
double its number every 20 years. But a foreigner ought to bring with 
him a knowledge of English, and that of a trade or profession ; or else money 
enough to buy a farm and the cattle needful for working it. If he has only 
his hands, then he will work at the hire of others, either among the farmers, 
or the mechanics of the towns, or in the workshops, and he will soon find 
that his labor is much better paid than in Europe, and that he will here 
be paid and fed as an equal and comrade of those who hire him." 

"But a Frenchman like me, would they take me in during this unlucky 
war in Canada?" 

"Why not? do you not speak our language? do you not come from Ire- 
land and Newfoundland? And when they find out that you were perse- 
cuted in your own country, they will sympathize with you all the more. 
You will find in New York and Philadelphia, and in New Jersey, a great 
number of the children and grandchildren of your old fellow-countrymen. 
who come over here to settle during the religious wars and troubles in your 

•"What is the common price of land there?" 

"Their value depends on their fertility, on the population of the coun- 
try, the nearness of a navigable river, the vicinity of a town, or the good- 
ness of the farm-buildings and orchards that are found on the estates to be 


sold. The price of woodlands depends on their goodness, the proximity 
to old settlements, markets, navigable rivers, etc. I think you can buy farms 
in New Jersey, all cleared and with the buildings, for from £.b to £.20 an 
acre. One of my neighbors the other day bought a charming place of 57 
acres, with a very decent house and barn, seven acres of field, and an orchard 
of an acre for ,£.500." 

"My dear Captain, your information gives me the greatest pleasure. 
Two more things I have to ask of you, — a passage to New York on your 
vessel, and your good advice when I get there." 

"With all my heart; but I am more seaman than farmer; my wife manages 
our farm, near Elizabethtown; when you are under our roof, she will tel 
you all she knows." 

"By the advice of this kind and industrious American wife, I travelled 
in Maryland, Virginia and a part of Pennsylvania. What a lovely coun- 
try! and I knew not that it existed! Everywhere I found hospitality and 
good advice; everywhere men well-informed, according to their rank; every- 
where nearness, decency, and a singular perfection in utility, whether car- 
riages, public or private, mills, plow-lands, implements, furniture, house- 
building, etc. What good fortune that I had learned the language of the 
country! what should I have done without it? That key opens all doors 
and all hearts. I have heard so much about the advantages of the region 
between Oneida Lake, the head waters of the Susquehanna and the Mo- 
hawk River, — so many praises of the goodness of the soil, the wholesome 
climate, etc. that I mean to see and traverse that fine country before I settle 
down. I expect to go to Albany, Schoharie, Cherry Valley and German 
Flats, and beyond them to Lakes Canascrago and Otsego. Out of these. 
as from two basins hollowed out by the Creator's hand, flow forth, without 
falls or cascades, the two chief branches of the beautiful Susquehannah. What 
a desirable channel of communication for the future farmers of that vast 
region, when from these two lakes, without interruption, they can sail to 
the seashore near Baltimore, — a distance of 120 leagues! I am waiting 
here, like you, gentlemen, 'till the return of spring." 


St. John afterwards speaks of having lost while in prison at New York 
his notes on Maryland and Virginia, where he probably travelled as a mer- 
chant while living in Pennsylvania. His sea-captain, living on a farm near 
Elizabeth, may have been near Westfield, where I am spending the winter 
of 1916-17, and correcting these proofs. 

Restudying here the conflicting data furnished by his several biogra- 
phers, including the Hue-and-cry of his father in 1772 for his wayward and 
truant only son. I have been constructing a new theory, somewhat differ- 
ent from that put forth in my paper at Boston in November, but contain- 
ing the elements of that. There is some question how the French dates 
given by the Marquis are to be read; the choice depending on the different 
usages of the word l deyuis } ] but as I now read them, the youth was'' expat- 
riated' from France in 1754, and 'reclaimed' to England by the Misses Mutet 
of Salisbury, where he lived between ten and eleven years. The Marquis 
said, "II habite l'Angleterre depuis dix a onze annees," adding, "He lived 
in Philadelphia eight or nine years up to 1767." But from 1754 to 1772, is 
only 18 years, — not time enough for all these calculations: so that the Marquis 
may have intended to say, "He was living in England ten or eleven years 
ago," which would hold him in England, coming and going, till 1760-61, and 
not allow him to be permanently in America before 1763. Now St. John 
himself told Lacretelle, who sketched his life in 1783, "After having lived 
successively in several European countries, I ended by establishing myself 
in Pennsylvania." His descendants have a tradition that he visited Lis- 
bon after the great earthquake in 1755, and a letter of his they quoted to 
the effect that "he made a visit to Quebec at the age of 20, — " (some time 
before January 1756)" and was there usefully and agreeably employed in 
drawing large maps of the country, and enjoying a certain degree of considera- 
tion and importance which his own talents had procured for him." 

In this confusion of dates and places, let us construct a theory of the 
missing years of the stripling and truant St. John. He went, we will say, 
to England in 1754, on a visit; and he never saw his father again till Aug- 
ust, 178^ — 27 years. This we know from his own and his father's express 


statement. Let us suppose that he ran away from England to Holland, 
and began a mercantile life, which took him to Lisbon in 1754-5; that he 
then sailed for Canada, and began there his long career of land-surveying 
and map-drawing; that he even travelled then among the Indians, and en- 
listed as an engineer in Montcalm's arm}', — remaining there till 1757, the 
year of the Indian massacre by Lake George; that he was then captured 
by the British army, and "reclaimed" by his English Huguenot friends at 
Salisbmy, in (1758), and sent over to Philadelphia. This would allow him 
eight years between 1758 and 1767, when his father last heard from him. 
He would then have time to describe Philadelphia, as he did, and Shippens- 
burg, Nantucket, S. Carolina and Bermuda, either before or after he was 
naturalized as a subject of the royal Province of Xew York, in 1766, when 
he lived in Ulster County, and was a "Gentleman," and was wooing Mehet- 
able Tippet, whom he married in 1769, (Sept. 16). There is authority' for 
all this, without much altering his father's dates, but correcting those of 
the very inaccurate son. 

I have long been advising American novelists to make St. John the 
subject of a series of novels. He would hold out for at least three, and might 
answer for six; and his 68 years of a wandering life would supply periods 
and localities quite beyond the scope of most novels. 


Albert Woodbury Dennis 

Witchcraft is usually thought of as one of the delusions of ages long past. 
Yet every now and then we are reminded by the chronicle of events in the 
newspapers that belief in it still exists in many parts of the world, and al- 
so in out-of-the-way places in the United States. 

It was only last June that the Boston Herald printed the following ed- 
itorial comment on a case in Pennsylvania. 

"A few days ago a man in Pennsylvania set fire to a tenement house 
owned by him, purposing that way to destroy a black cat. This cat he be- 
lieves cast a spell on him and in consequence his barn was burned three years 
ago and numerous deaths occurred in his family. When the man was ar- 
rested for arson, a revolver loaded with a silver bullet was taken irom him. 
He said that lead bullets passed through the cat without harming it. His 
niece also declared that the cat had bewitched her. 

Uncle and niece are not Hungarians or Bohemians who brought with 
them the superstitions of their villages. They are Americans with common 
English names. The man is evidently a man of property. Yet he believes 
in mischief working spells and charms against them. To kill a malignant. 
demoniacal cat he is willing to burn a house down as lightly as the China- 
man in Charles Lamb's essay burned his house that he might have roast 
pig; to kill the cat, the Pennsylvanian moulds silver bullets. 

Every now and then a story is told in the newspapers showing that 
belief in witchcraft is by no means extinct. Every day men may be seen 
going around a ladder on a sidewalk, instead of going under it. One of Chi- 
cago's greatest hotels, which numbers its rooms on each letter-named floor. 
has no thirteen anywhere. 



Superstitions die hard. Magic, if learned folk-lorists are to be trusted, 
preceded religion. Old magic rites found their way into religions. Strange 
beliefs still survive even among pyrrhonists and agnostics. Inconsistencies 
prove nothing to them. Why, for instance, should the appearance of a 
black cat, especially a stray one, be welcomed in a theatre as an omen of 
good luck, and a black cat near Pottsville, Pa., be regarded as in league with 

The Salem Evening News published a paragraph in "The Man About 
Town" column, about two }*ears ago, which referred to a court case at Tur- 
key Run, Pennsylvania. 

The plaintiff in the case, Mrs. Short, accused one Mrs. Zemanowski of 
assaulting her, and scratching her cheeks till blood came, whereupon the 
defendant explained that she was forced to draw the old woman's blood 
in order to break a spell which had been cast over Mrs. Zemanowski by the 
woman, whom the defendant declared to be a witch. 

It seems that Mrs. Zemanowski's voice had started to fail her not long 
after she had accepted a drink of whiskey from Mrs. Short, and Mrs. Zem- 
anowski became convinced that she was bewitched by the draft, and hence 
the strange defence pleaded. 

It is only within a twelve month since a full page sensational article 
appeared in the Sunday papers, headed "A Modern Witch/' which related 
that a few days before Mrs. Sadie S. Darling, of Newark, X. J., was arrested 
under the statute covering witchcraft — that is, she was virtually accused 
of being a witch. 

Mrs. Darling, who is a medium and pastor of the First Progressive Spirit- 
ual Church, No. 57 Halsey street, Newark, when arrested under the Witch- 
craft Law for "pretending to exercise or use conjuration, occult and crafty 
science" to mislead or defraud ignorant persons, said: 

"If I am a witch why don't they hang or burn me as they did in the old 
days? They are threatening to fine me $50. Am I a witch? Do people 
continue to believe in witchcraft? Our laws seem to show that they do." 

Mrs. Darling herself did not consider herself a witch by any means, 
but only a medium, having remarkable psychic power. 


A new edition of Winfield S. Nevins standard work on "Witchcraft 
in Salem Village," published this year, diseribes in a lengthy preface var- 
ious instances of witchcraft trials in different parts of the world in recent 
years, and discusses very interestingly the petty superstitions of today. 
He says: 

Witchcraft is not yet dead. Fourteen persons were indicted for witch- 
craft in Havana, Cuba, in 1905, and brought to trial on March 10 of that 
year. For seven of them the public prosecutor asked the penalty of death. 
Several were convicted and two were sentenced to death and executed. 
Others were sentenced to less severe punishment. A witch doctor in the 
country had written to another of the profession stating that in order to 
effect a cure of a certain colored woman he must have the heart's blood of 
a white child, that the illness, or affliction of the patient was the result of ill 
inflicted by white persons in the old slavery days, and could only be cured 
by the warm life blood of a white person. The child was procured in the 
person of a twenty-months old babe named Zoila, who was stolen from her 
parents. Her body, when found, had been dismembered and thrown into 
a thicket. The sick woman had used upon her abdomen a poultice made 
of the heart's blood of the child, and taken internally a decoction brewed 
with the heart itself. 

Belief in witchcraft is quite prevalent in the rural districts of Great 
Britain, according to the London Daily Mail in 1903. Some years ago two 
young farmers in Cornwall were charged with threatening to murder an el- 
derly woman, a neighbor, whom they accused of having "ill-wished" their 
horses so that they refused to pull their loads and started kicking. One 
of the defendants swore that the old woman had ''cast an evil spell" over 
the animal. Another case: in a Highland village the ill health of a minister 
was attributed to a 'stream which passed his house having been bewitched 
by certain parishioners who had had a serious disagreement with him over 
certain theological views expressed in a sermon. Other instances of ''witch- 
craft" were reported in the British press a few year ago. 

In 1911 a woman was tried on charge of killing another, in Ireland. 
an. old-age pensioner, in a fit of insanity. One witness testified to meeting 
the accused woman on the road the morining of the murder. She had a 
statue in her hand, and repeated three times: "I have the old witch killed. 
I got power from the Blessed Virgin, to kill her. She came to me at 3 o'clock 


yesterday and told me to kill her or I would be plagued with rats and mice." 
Then the accused woman herself told about the rat that came into her house, 
and since then she had been annoyed and upset in her mind. A lady came 
while she was lying in bed and she was all dressed in white with a wreath 
on her head and said, "I was in danger. I thought she was referring to the 
rat coming into the house." And so the testimony continued. And this 
in 1911, not 1611 nor 1711. 

What license have we of today to condemn the belief in witchcraft by 
our ancestors two centuries ago? Have we not a few defects of our own. 
a few superstitions as ridiculous as those of the aforesaid ancestors? How 
many of us would sit down at table in a group of thirteen? How often do 
we hear a friend make a boast of any good fortune without "knocking on 
wood"? Who of us but seeks to see the new moon over the right shoulder? 
What about killing the first snake we see each spring in order that we may 
surely kill all the others of the season? Why do steamship companies always 
number rooms "12A" or "11A" according as the room may be on the odd 
or even side, and never a "13"? Why do we find a room 13 in a hotel rarely 
or never? How many persons walking down street will pass under 
the ladder that workmen have leaned against a building? Then there is 
the horse-shoe superstition which leads so man}- to pick up and treasure 
every horse-shoe seen on the street. This notwithstanding Xelson was killed 
under a horse-shoe. Possibly it may be said that that horse-shoe brought 
him good luck for he won the battle and was immortalized, and has more 
and greater monuments than almost any other Englishman who ever lived. 
There is the superstition of the prayer chain which must not be broken, 
and the belief that pictures of birds in a room will bring evil because the 
birds will fly away with our luck. There are many other equally absurd 
"beliefs," all of them superstitions, as much as was the belief in witchcraft 
in 1692. The redeeming quality of the present age is that it sees no great 
harm in one or all of these "beliefs." We make no complaints, and the be- 
lievers are not arrested, nor tried, nor executed, save on the gibbet of raillery. 

Witchcraft, superstition, or idolatry, prevails generally in India today. 
Mrs. Frank Penny who has spent most of her time in that far Eastern country, 
stated to a recent writer that the natives always invoke evil spirits, and their 
belief in them is very strong indeed. In every village in South India there 
is a shrine built in honor of some deity, whose duty it is to ward off these 
evil spirits, the whole life of the native being one long dread of them and 


their works. Mrs. Penny has described some of these things in her various 
books of fiction. Like the witch doctors of Cuba, the magician of India 
has to have blood to propitiate the devil, and in olden days human blood 
alone was sufficient unto the evil thereof. But the British government 
has done its best to make the Devil understand that he must be content 
with the blood of goats and cocks. The methods of use and the ceremonies 
connected therewith are much like those described in the trial in Havana. 

[This is the 23rd (second part) of a serie3 of monographs on the Regiments from Massachusetts in the Wa 
of the American Revolution, which are appearing in The Massachusetts Magazine.] 



Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 19th Regiment, Provincial Army, April — July, 1775. 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 6th Regiment, Army United 
Colonies, July — December 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

(Continued from No. 3, Vol. IX.) 

ADJUTANT JOHN BUTLER of Peterborough (N. H.?). He was 
the son of John and Elizabeth (How) Butler, and was born in Hopkinton, 
March 28, 1729. He served as corporal in Captain J. Catlin's Scouts in 
1749 and incurred the ill will of the Indians, who came to Framingham for 
his scalp, but he escaped. From April 23rd to November 21, 1754 he was 
Second Lieutenant in Captain John Johnson's Framingham Company. 
Colonel Winslow's Regiment. April 22, 1757, he was Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Henry Emm's Company. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Adjutant 
in Colonel John Brewer's Regiment. In the battle of Bunker Hill, June 
17, 1775, while serving as Adjutant in this regiment he was wounded in the 
arm. A roll dated camp at Prospect Hill, show r ed service as Adjutant of 
this regiment for three months, and fourteen days from April 24, 1775. He 
died March 20, 1795. 

was a resident of that town as early as 1765. He went to Brookfield the 



following year but in 1769 returned to Framingham. Temple in his History 
of Framingham states that he was a Minute Man on April 19, 1775. April 
24, 1775, he was engaged as Ensign in Captain Joseph Stebbin's Company, 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. His name appears as Quarter- 
master of this Regiment in a list of Field and Staff officers dated August 20. 
1775. In a list made up, probably in October, 1775, his rank is given as 
Second Lieutenant of that Company. January 1, 1776, he became Ensign 
in Captain William Hudson Ballard's' Company in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
6th Regiment, Continental Army, and was promoted to Second Lieu- 
tenant, October 1st of that year. According to a muster roll dated Camp 
at Saratoga, November 27th of that year, he was reported as acting Quarter- 
master in that Regiment. He was reported re-engaged November 13, 1776, 
to serve as First Lieutenant, to serve in Captain Brewer's Company, Col- 
onel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment , but he was to continue in Colonel Whit- 
comb's Regiment until December 31, 1776. January 1, 1777, he became 
First Lieutenant in "Colonel Ebenezer Sprout's" 12th Regiment. Mass- 
achusetts Line, as shown by the Continental pay accounts from that date 
to January 28, 1778. He was reported "resigned" on the latter date. A 
company return dated "Camp Valley Forge, January 23 177S'' gives his 
name in connection with Captain Brewer's Company, Colonel Brewer's 
Regiment, and the following note w r cs appended: "Reported discharged 
by the General January 9, 1778." 

SURGEON DAVID TOWNSEND of Boston, son of Shippie and Ann 
(Kettle) Townsend, was born in Boston January 7, 1753. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1770. May 6, 1775, he entered seivice in Colonel Jonathan 
Brewer's Regiment as Surgeon. In a list of officers recommended in Coun- 
cil. Septembei 27, 1775, to General Washington for commissions, we rind 
his name as Surgeon of this Regiment with a note that said officeis "were 
appointed but not commissioned by Congiess owing to the confusion that 
took place after June 17, 1775." January 1, 1776 he was appointed Surgeon 
in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army and he served 


through the year. He became Hospital Physician and Surgeon in the 
Medical Department January 1, 1777 and served at least until December 
30 ; 1780, and according to Heitman, unt'l the close of the War. He died 
April 13, 1829. 

engaged as Surgeon's Mate in this Regiment, June 15, 1775. His name 
appears in a list of "Surgeon's and Surgeon's Mates examined and approved 
by a Committee of Watertown, July 5, 1775." September 27 1775 recom- 
mendation was made by the Council to General Washington that he be 
commissioned. Another list stated that he was Surgeon's Mate to Dr. Car- 
ver at a Watertown Hospital. No date given. November 15, 1777 he was 
engaged as Surgeon of the State Brigantine "Massachusetts'' commanded 
by Captain John Lambert, and a roll made up for advance wages for one 
month w T as sworn to June 27, 1778. 

CAPTAIN JOHN BLACK of Hutchinson (Barre) (Rutland District) 
was a private in Captain James Caldweld's Company, Colonel ''RudgelV 
(Ruggles's) Regiment, which marched for the relief of Fort William Hen- 
ry in August 1757. The service is described as a march of 240 miles. IS 
days, from "Rutland District to Canterhook." He enlisted April 20, 1775 
in that rank in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment and served through 
the year. A certificate dated Hutchinson, April 28, 1776, signed by said 
Black, stated that several men in his company lost articles at Bunker Hill 
June 17, 1775. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel 
Nathan Sparhawk's 7th Worcester County Regiment. A man of this name 
was living in Barre in 1790, according to a census return of that date. 

CAPTAIN EDWARD BLAKE of Taunton (also given Boston) was 
the son of Captain Edward Blake of Boston, who had a long and disting- 
uished record in the French and Indian Wai. Edward Blake Junior, the 
subject of this sketch served in his father's Company from June 22nd to 
December 27th in 1761. He was Ensign in Captain John Haskin's Com- 


pany, Colonel John Irving's Regiment in 1771. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he marched as Second Lieutenant in Captain Robert Cross- 
man's Company, Colonel Nathaniel Leonard's Regiment. April 25, 1775 
he enlisted as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment and sei 
through the year. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel 
George Williams's 3rd Bristol County Regiment. In December of that 
year he marched with his regiment to Warren, R. I., on an alarm, serving 
twenty-five days. He marched on other alarms to Rhode Island in Sep- 
tember — October and December, 1777. He served again in command of 
a company in Colonel Thomas Carpenter's 1st Bristol County Regiment 
in July-August, 1780. August 2, 1780 he commanded a Company in Col- 
onel Abial Mitchell's 3rd Worcester County Regiment, the regiment com- 
manded at that w ime by Lieutenant Colonel James Williams and served eight 
days in Brigadier General Godfrey's Brigade. 

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BULLARD of Sherbora, son of Captain 
Benjamin and Marion (Morse) Bullard, was born in that town June 30, 
1741. From March 24th to November 22, 1750 he was a private in Cap- 
tain William Jones's Company. On the Lexington alarm of April 29, 1775 
he commanded a Company of Minute Men in Colonel Abijah Peirce's 
Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Jonathan 
Brewer's Regiment, and served through the year. January 1, 1770 he be- 
came Captain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Gth Regiment. Continental Army, 
and was reported as resigned September 30, 1776. June 12, 1777 he was 
commissioned as Captain of the 9th (Sherborn) Company in Colonel Samuel 
Bullard's 5th Middlesex County Regiment. 

CAPTAIN ISAAC GRAY of Pelham served as a Sergeant in Cap- 
tain Roger Southbridge's Company, Colonel Israel Williams - Regiment 
on a Fort William Henry alarm in 1757. He served as surveyor in Pelham 
in 1760-1 and selectman in 1762. On the Lexington alarm of April 19. 
1775 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Hooker's Company of 
Minute Men, Colonel Ruggles Woodbridge's Regiment. May 1, 1775 he 


was engaged as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment and he 
served through the year. September 23, 1777 he marched as "Captain 
serving as volunteer" in Captain John Thompson's Company, Colonel 
Elisha Porters 4th Hampshire County Regiment, serving twelve days. He 
was probably the man of that name who served from July 10th to August 
7, 1777 in Lieutenant James Halbert's Company, Colonel Elisha Porter's 
Regiment; the roll dated at Pelham. 

CAPTAIN MOSES HARVEY of Montague, son of Samuel and Es- 
ther (Warner) Harvey was born in Sunderland, July 20, 1723. August 
4 ; 1747 his name appears as a private in scouting service in an account ren- 
dered by William Williams's scouts hired by Governor Shirley to go up Black 
River. From June 2nd until December 174S, he was a centinel in Cap- 
tain William Williams's Company. He was a member of the Montague 
Committee of Correspondence in 1773. May 12, 1775 he was engaged 
as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment and served in that or- 
ganization through the year. May 7, 1776 his commission was ordered 
as Captain of the 5th (Montague) Company, in Colonel Phineas Wright's 
6th Hampshire County Regiment. From May 10th to July 10, 1777 he 
was a Captain in Colonel David Well's Regiment in the Northern Depart- 
ment. He was engaged as Captain in Colonel Benjamin Ruggles Wood- 
bridge's Regiment August 14, 1777, and served with the Northern Army 
at and about Saratoga until November 29, 1777. 

CAPTAIN AARON HAYNES of Sudbury held that rank as com- 
mander of the 2nd Sudbury Company in Colonel Elisha Jones's 3rd Middle- 
sex County Regiment in 1771. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 
he marched as Captain of a Company to Cambridge, via Concord. April 
29, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Company 
and he served through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment in the Continental Army. January 1, 1777 
he became Captain in Colonel Edward Wigglesworth'a 13th Regiment. 


Massachusetts Line, and he served in that rank under Colonel Wiggles- 
worth, and his successor, Lieutenant Colonel Calvin Smith, until April 7, 1779 
when he was made a supernumerary, and was retired the following day. 

CAPTAIN THADDEUS RUSSELL of Sudbury, son of Samuel and 
Sarah (Bryant) Russell, was born in that town, August 2, 1739. April 
25, 1757 his name appears as a member of Captain Moses Maynard's 1st 
Sudbury Company. March 23, 1759, at the age of 19 he enlisted in Col- 
onel Elisha Jones's Regiment. April 2 of that year he was in Major Joseph 
Curtis's First Foot Company. From January 1st to May 14, 1760 he was 
a private in Captain Daniel Fletcher's Company, Colouel Frye's Regiment 
at Nova Scotia. As a resident of Sudbury he was a private in Captain 
James Gray's Company from March 22. to November 20, 17G2 He was 
Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Cudworth's Company of Minute Men, 
Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment which marched on the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775. He was engaged as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 
Regiment, April 24, 1775 and served through Ihe year. 

CAPTAIN SIMON STEVENS was the son of Captain Phineas Ste- 
vens. He was an Ensign in General Shirley's Pi ovincial Regiment, which 
was sent to Nova Scotia in 1755, and in 1758 was made Lieutenant of a 
company of rangers under Lord Loudon, serving until 1760. He was then 
made Captain of a company, receiving his commission from General Am- 
herst. He served until peace was declared. The return of Colonel Jon- 
athan Brewer's Regiment dated May 18, 1775, Captain Simon Stevens 
is reported as recruiting, not joined. In a "Recommendation addressed 
to His Excellency General Washington, November 4, 1775, signed by James 
Otis, on behalf of the Council" he was recommended with two others for 
"any vacancies that might occur in the Continental Army as they had Sdved 
continuous wirh the forces of Massachusetts Bay from 1755 to the time 
of the reduction of Canada, and being desirous of entering the service of 
the United Colonies.'*' 


CAPTAIN LEMUEL TRESCOTT of Boston was born in 1751. He 
served his time with Hopestill Capin, a carpenter in Boston, and served 
as orderly Sergeant in Captain Joseph Peirce's Company of Boston "Gren- 
adiers/* He assisted Lieutenant Henry (afterward General) Knox in bring- 
ing this company to a high state of efficiency. May 10, 1775 he was engaged 
as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment and served through the 
year. During 1776 he was a Captain in Colonel Asa Whiteomb's Gth Reg- 
iment in the Continental Army. January 1, 1777 he became Captain in 
Colonel David Henley's .Regiment in the Continental Army, and he held 
that rank until May 20, 1778 when he was promoted to the rank of Major 
in Colonel Henry Jackson's Regiment. On the 3rd of October, 1781, with 
100 men he crossed the Sounds of Long Island, surprised Fori Slongo and 
brought over his garrison with a quantity of arms, ammunition, clothing, etc. 
He commanded a battalion of Light Infantry under Lafayette. In a return 
dated Camp NeAV Windsor, December 28, 1782 and one January 20, 17S3, 
his name appears as Major-Commandant of Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks's 
7th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He was appointed Major in the Sec- 
ond United State? Infantry, March 4, 1791, and res : gned December 28th 
of that year. Apiil 9, 1S12 he was appointed Colonel of Infantry, but he 
declined. He served as Collector of United States Revenue for Machias 
1808-11, and Passamaquoddy, Maine, 1812-18. He died in Lubec, Maine, 
August 10, 1826. He had "the reputation of an excellant disciplinarian 
and an active and vigilant officer." Drake describes him as "an upright, 
humane £nd patriotic man." He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Society of the Cincinnati 

CAPTAIN DANIEL WHITING of Dedham was the son of Jon- 
athan and Anna (Bullard' Whiting. He was born in Dedham, February 
5, 1732-3. From September 15th to December 16, 1755 he was a private 
in Captain William Bacon's Company. He served in Captain Joseph Rich- 
ard's Company of Dedham in December 1759. From February 26th to 


December G, 1760 he was an Ensign in Captain Nathaniel Bailey's Dedham 
Company. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he served as First 
Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer Battle's 4th Parish Company of Dedham. 
April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 
Regiment and he served through the year. During 177(3 he was Captain 
in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, in the Continental Army. He 
was reported November 6, 1776 "reengaged and promoted to Major" in 
Colonel Ichabod Alden's 7th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, "but to con- 
tinue in Colonel Whitcomb's regt. until Dec. 31. 1776." In the "History 
of Dover," Mass.. it is stated that "on the death of Colonel Alden at Cherry 
Valley he took command of the forces." September 29, 177S he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He was retired January 1, 1781. He died 
in Dover, Mass., October 17, 1806, aged 76 years. 

(See biographical sketch, Massachusetts Magazine, Vol. Ill, Page 28). 

CAPTAIN JOHN WOODS. This name was given in a return dated 
May 18, 1775 with the following note: "Recruiting and not joined." No 
furthei mention is made of him. 

son of Moses and Elizabeth (Davis) Brewer. He was born in Sudbury, 
June 10, 1751. April 30, 1775 he enlisted as a Lieutenant in Captain Aaron 
Haynes's Company. Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and was com- 
missioned June 17, 1775. He was in the battle of Bunker Hill and was 
later reimbursed for articles lost in that battle He served through the yeai 
in this regiment, and January 1, 1776 became First Lieutenant in Captain 
Daniel Whiting's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment of 
the Continental Aimy. Novembei 13, 1776 he was engaged as Captain 
in Colonel Samuel Brewer's Regiment, but to continue in Colonel Whit- 
comb's Regiment, until December 31, 1776. He resigned July 5. 1779, 
according to Heitman, and died July 23, 1S27. 


FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN CLARK of Hadley, was probably 

the man of this name, son of Jchn and Mary Clark, who was born about 
1739. From October 19, 1756 to January 22, 1757 lie was a centinel in 
Captain Israel Williams's Company. He was a member of Captain John 
Burke's Company from March 10th to November 17, 1757, and was included 
in the capitualtion of Fort William Henry. He was a member of the same 
company in 1758 from April 15th to November 30th. and from April _. 
to November 2, 1759 served at the westward, in Captain Salah Barnard's 
Company in Brigadier General Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. May 10, 
1775 he enlisted as Lieutenant in Captain Moses Harvey's Company, Col- 
onel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and served through the year. He was 
recommended by Council September 27, 1775 to be commissioned by Gen- 
eral Washington, and a company return (dated probably October 1775) 
reported "gone to Quebec, Sept. 12." In a Muster roll dated Camp at 
Ticonderoga, November 27, 1776 he was reported "taken prisoner Decem- 
ber 31, 1775 at Quebec;" also reported "on parole in Massachusetts." In 
a petition sworn to at Hadley, October 9, 1776, signed by said Clark, ask- 
ing for remuneration for gun, etc., he declared that he marched under Brig- 
adier General Arnold at Quebec, where he was taken prisoner. December 
31, 1775. July 10, 1777 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain Moses Kel- 
logg's Company, Colonel Elisha Porter's 4th Hampshire County Regiment 
and served until August 7, 1777. He marched on another alarm in the 
same company and regiment, September 23, 1777, and served "32" days, 
receiving his discharge "Oct*. 18, 1777." 

son of Elijah Cushing, Junior, and was born in Pembroke, Mass.. April 
8, 1753. He was a carpenter by trade. May 10, 1775 he was engaged 
to serve as First Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Trescott's Company. Col- 
onel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and he served through the year. Jan- 
uary 1, 1776 he became First Lieutenant in Captain Aaron Haynes's Com- 
pany, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment in the Continental Army, 


January 1, 1777 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel John Paterson'fl 
1st Regiment, Massachusetts Line, the regiment later commanded by Col- 
onel Joseph Vose. From December 1, 1781 to April 17S2 he served as 
Brigade Major He was a breveted Major, September 30, 1784. Drake in 
the "Memorial of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati" states that 
he was "engaged in man}- battles and skirmishes and was noted as a most 
successful partisan officer. In May, 1780 while stationed at the outpost 
of the so-called 'Needle Grounds' between Cambridge and White Plain?, 
N. Y., he captured a detachment of DeLancey's Corps of Tories, and being 
pursued by Colonel Simcoe's mounted rangers, repulsed the attack of that 
officer and reached the post with all his prisoners. For his bravery and 
skill in this affair he was highly complimented by the Commander in Chief 
After the war he removed from Boston to Maiietta, 0., where, soon after 
his arrival in August 1788, he was commiss'.oned by Governor St. Clare 
as a Captain and in 1797 Colonel of the 1st Regiment -of Militia. He was 
one of the founders of Belpre Colony in 17S9, and died in August 1S14." 

son of Thomas and Abigail (Williams) Dewey. He was born in Sheffield. 
October 8, 1727. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Lieutenant in Can- 
tain Daniel Whiting's Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. 
and he served through the year. He removed to Poultney, Yt. The "Dewey 
Genealogy" mentions him as follows: "He was a bold, resolute lover oi 
the chase and hunt. In appearance about 5 feet, 10 inches in height, slim 
but very muscular, small, keen black eyes, dark hair. . . .strong sang- 
uine temperament; good mind, judgment, and sound common sense.'* The 
same authority states that he represented Poultney in the Vermont Conven- 
tion, January 15, 1777, and that he was a Captain of Militia in Poultney 
and obtained the rank of Major in the Battle of Hubbardston He died 
in Poultney, Yt., October 28, 1804, aged 77 years. 

son of Addington and Mary (Allen) Gardner. He was born in Brookline, 


April 1, 1741. He was Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Bullard's Com- 
pany of Minute Men, Colonel Abijah Peirce's Regiment, which marched 
on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 April 24, 1775 he was engaged 
as First Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Bullard's Company, Colonel Jon- 
athan Brewer's Regiment, and served through the year. March 27, 177G 
he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Samuel Bullard's 5th Middlesex 
County Regiment. September 25, 1776 he marched as Captain of a com- 
pany in Colonel Eleazer Brooks's 3rd Middlesex County Regiment to Horse 
Neck to reinforce the Continental Army and served G2 days. May 1. 1779 
he was commissioned First Major in the above ncmed regiment. He was 
a selectman in Sherborn in 1788. 

was probably the same man who sevecl as centinel in Captain Jeduthan Bald- 
win's Company, from September 15th to Decembei 14, 1755 on a Crown 
Point Expedition; and who was a member of Captain John Frye's Company. 
Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment from April 4th to May 21, 175S. He 
was recommended in the Committee of Safety. June 17, 1775, as one of 
the officers to be commissioned, his rank to be that of Lieutenant in Captain 
John Black's Company. In a muster roll dated August 1, 1775, it is stated 
that he was engaged April 20th of that year, which would indicate that he 
responded to the Lexington alarm, evidently in Captain John Black's Com- 
pany, although no other commissioned officer than the captain can be found 
in the rolls of the company preserved in the archives, Vol. 11, Page 227. 
He served through the year under this officer. April IS, 177G with a com- 
pany of ninety-one men he began the march toward New York in Colonel 
Jonathan Holman's Worcester County Regiment, and he served through 
the year under that officer. In 1777 he was commissioned Captain in Col- 
onel Rufus Putnam's 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, his commission 
bearing date of January 1st of that year. He served until January 13. 177> 
when he resigned. He was in all probe bility the man of this name who 
was living with his family in Barre in 1790. 


probably the man of that name who served in a Nova Scotia Expedition 
in 1755-6 under Captain Phineas Stevens, and who as a resident of Charles- 
town was a private in Captain Thomas Cheever's Company fiom March 9 to 
August 9, 1757 on sn expedition ic Crown Point. He probably joined this 
regiment early in June as an order signed on the 23rd of that month called 
for provisions for fourteen days due said Hastings. June 17, 1775 he was 
engaged as Ensign in Captain Edward Blake's Company, Colonel Jonathan 
Brewer's Regiment. Another return would seem to indicate that he was for a 
time in Captain Moses Harvey's Company in the same regiment. July 15, 1775 
he was serving as recruiting officer in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. 
June 5, 1778 he was commissioned First Lieutenant, his name so appear- 
ing in a list of officers of the Middlesex County Militia. May 5. 1779 he 
began service as Lieutenant in Captain Caleb Morton's Company, Col- 
onel Thomas Poor's Regiment, and was discharged February 24 1779. 
Dining a portion of this time at least he served as Lieutenant-Commandant. 
August 4, 1780 he was commissioned First Lieutenant and his name ap- 
peared in a "list of officers appointed to command men discharged from 
militia to reinforce the Continental Army for three months, agreeable to 
a resolve of June 22, 1780." From June 30th to October 30, 17S0 he was 
a Lieutenant in Captain Zachias Wright's Company, Colonel Cyprian How's 
Regiment. He was living with his family in Waltham in 1790. 

the son of Moses and Lois (Stone) Maynard. He was born in Sudbury, 
May 7, 1744. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as 
Ensign in Captain Nathaniel Cudworth's Company of Minute Men, Col- 
onel Abijah Pierce's Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as First 
Lieutenant in Captain Thaddeus Russell's Company, Colonel Jonathan 
Brewer's Regiment, and he served through the year. July 8, 1770 he was 
chosen Captain in the 4th (2nd Sudbury) Company, in Colonel Ezekiel 
Howe's 4th Middlesex County Regiment. According to a return dated 


Groton, December 5, 177G, Captain Maynard, with the 4th Company, be- 
came part of a Middlesex County Militia Regiment to be commanded by 
Colonel Samuel Thatcher, and ordered to march to Fairfield, Ct., before 
Dec. 16, 1776. Later he became Captain of the Second Sudbury Company 
of Militia, and a lettei of his dated Sudbury, September 15, 1778 to Col- 
nel Ezekial How, contained the request that his resignation as Captain be 
read before the council, on account of ill health, and his resignation wras 
ordered accepted January 7, 1779. 

(also given Boston.) In all probability he saw service in the French War, 
but the large number of services credited to Boston men bearing this name 
makes it impossible to distinguish just what records belong to him. April 
25, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Edward Blake's 
Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and he served through the 
year. According to one return he appears to have been a Lieutenant in 
Captain Thaddeus Russell's Company for a time, in the same regiment. In 
1776 he was Second Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Whiting's Company, 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army. The records 
of this regiment are confusing as in another record he is credited to Cap- 
tain Benjamin Bullard's Company, which was later commanded by Cap- 
tain Thomas Willington. He evidently served as Adjutant in this regiment 
from January 1st, and on October 1st was promoted to the rank of First 
Lieutenant. Januar}- 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Joseph Vose's 
1st Regiment, Massachusetts Line. In a muster roll for March and April 
1779 he was "reported a supernumery officer.''' Heitman states that he was 
retired April 1, 1779. Another return dated September 22, 1779 shows 
that he had been appointed Brigade Quartermaster of the 1st Massachu- 
setts Brigade. This service continued at least until December 31, 17S0. 
He was a resident of Boston at the time of this last service. The only res- 
ident of Massachusetts in 1790 bearing this name lived in the town o<" 


of Watertown, son of Thomas and Margaret (Stone) Wellington, was born 
in Waltham December 2, 1735. July 4, 1756 as a resident of Waltham 
he served in Captain William Brattle's 1st Middlesex County Regiment 
on a Crown Point expedition. August 9th of that year he was at Fort Will- 
iam Henry in Captain Timothy Houghton's Company, Colonel Jonathan 
Bagley's Regiment, having joined from Colonel Brattle's Regiment. May 
1, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Gray's Company, 
Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and he served through the year. In 
1776 he was First Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Bullard's Company, 
Colonel Asa Whieomb's Regiment, and he held that rank until Septem- 
bei 30, 1776, when he replaced Captain Bullard in command of the corn- 
pan}'. January 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Edward Wiggles- 
worth's 13th Regiment, Continental Army, and he served under that officer 
and his successor, Lieutenant Colonel Calvin Smith, until the date of his 
retirement April 10, 1779. He was living in Waltham in 1790. He died 
January 19, 1818. 


Sudbury, was the son of James and Elizabeth (Balcomb) Mosman. He 
was born in that town March 17, 1748-9. May 4, 1775 he was engaged as 
Ensign in Captain Aaron Haynes's Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 
Regiment, and in a company roll dated October 6, 1775 was called Second 
Lieutenant. July 1, 1778 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain 
Jacob Haskins's Company, Colonel John Jacob's Light Infantry Regiment, 
his enlistment to expire January 1, 1779. In the "History of Ashburnham" 
it is stated that he removed from Sudbury to Hopkinton in 1793. In a 
sketch of his life in the above named work, we read: ''The repeated men- 
tion of his name in the records supports the voice of tradition that he was 
an educated, capable man and that his services were held in high esteem. 
He was a farmer and surveyor, and many maps, plans and outlines of high- 
ways, neatly executed by him are in the possession of Mr. John M. Pratt." 


About 1800 he removed to Westminister but subsequently returned to Hop- 
kinton, where he died, November 8, 1S19, aged 71 year.-. 

was born about 1739. April 20, 1775 he enlisted as Ensign in Captain John 
Black's Company. He served under the same Captain during this year in the 
Provincial Army and the Army of the L T nited Colonies, and in a return dated 
probably October 1775 he was called Second Lieutenant in the organization. 
February 5, 1776 he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain John 
Bowker's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Reg- 
iment. "Lieutenant John Patrick" died in Barre, March 6, 1S07, aged 68 

ton December 17, 1753. May 10, 1775 he was engaged to hold the above 
rank in Captain Lemuel Trescott's Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's 
Regiment and he served through the year. During 1776 he held the rank 
of Second Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Trescott's Company, Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army. November 11. 1776 
according to a muster roll made up at Ticonderoga he was Adjutant of this 
regiment. January 1. 1777 he became First Lieutenant in Colonel Ed- 
ward Wigglesworth's 13th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and on Febru- 
ary 12, 1779 he was promoted Captain. January 1, 1781 he wes transferred 
to the 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, under command of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel-Commandant Calvin Smith, and June 12, 17S3 he was again 
transferred to the 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts Line, under command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Ebenezer Sprout. He served until November 3. 17S3. 
He was a member of the [Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati, and in 
the "Memorial" of that organization it is stated that he commanded Shep- 
ard's Regiment in the Battle of Monmouth and was Brigade Major. Also 
that he was at one time aid to Lafayette and was conspicuous in the army 
for bravery and prudence. He died in Portland, Me., August 7, 1S42. 


ENSIGN JOHN EMENS held that rank in Captain Edward Blake's 
Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, his name appearing in a 
list of men recommended in the Committee of Safety June 17. 1775 to be 

ENSIGN NATHANIEL REEVES of Sudbury marched as Sergeant 
in Captain Nathaniel Cudworth's Company of Minute Men, Colonel Abijah 
Pierce's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving 5 days. 
April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Ensign in Captain Thaddeus Russell's 
Company, Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, and he held that rank 
under those officers through the year. 

ENSIGN ABRAHAM WILLAMS of Sandwich, was born in that 
town February 10, 1754. He was the son of the Reverend Abraham and 
Anna (Buckminister) Williams. In a list of officers of this regiment recom- 
mended in Council, September 27, 1775 to General Washington for com- 
missions his name appears as Ensign. During 1776 he was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain A£ron Haynes's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
6th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777 he became Captain 
in Colonel Sameul Brewer's 12th Regiment, Massachusetts Line., and con- 
tinued service in this regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Carleton 
and Lieutenant Colonel Ebenezer Sprout, and September 29, 177S was pro- 
moted Captain. He continued in this regiment until January 1, 17S1 when 
he was transferred to Lieutenant Colonel Ebenezer Sprout's 2nd Regiment, 
Massachusetts Line, and he served until November 17S3. During this 
latter year he served as Brigade Major. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Society of the Cincinnati, and an original member of the "Ohio 
Company." He died in Sandwich in 1795. 


Albert Woodbury Dennis 

One marvelous thing about New Englanders is their literary habits 
of mind — or their talent and fondness for putting a thing down in writing. 
This manifests itself in their inclination to jot down their thoughts in^journals,'* 
to keep a diary, to write entertaining letters to personal friends, and scribble 
rhymes and verse. Many an old grandsire has left among his effects well 
kept diaries, or an old ledger filled with ambitious attempts at verse, when 
no one knew this side of his character, or maybe some brave effort at pol- 
itical essays on public questions of the day. Throughout New England 
it is a common thing to be able to write well. Even men and women who do 
not follow a vocation which stimulates the mind and developes imaginative 
F r ius, write most entertainingly and well. In many sections of t he coun- 
try it is an unusual gift to be able to write for the press, or to write a book, 
and when it is mentioned of a person that he or she is a ''writer," it is as 
awe inspiring as though it be said he is a "congressman'' or a "judge." 

It is this propension for literal expression that must in a large measure 
account for the well known preeminence of New England men in all fields 
of literature. The greatest American poets are Poe, Longfellow and Whittier; 
the greatest novelist or romancer is Hawthorne; the four greatest of Ameri- 
can historians are Bancroft, Parkman, Prescott and Motley; the greatest 
philosopher is admittedly Ralph Waldo Emerson; the greatest of all ora- 
tors, Daniel Webster; the best literary critic, James Russell Lowell — all 
New England Men. 




In no other part of the country is the propensity to put things down 
in writing so great as here. From the earliest days it began, and future 
generations have increased the habit. William Bradford and John Win- 
throp, the two first governors, started their journals early, and are generally 
credited with being America's first historians, but it would seem that every- 
body in any position of authority had the habit and began making materials 
for future history at the same time they did. The minister of every parish 
kept a record of the communicants, confessions, marriages, baptisms, births 
and deaths in his parish. A "clerk of the writs" was elected in every town 
to keep a correct record of all the vital statistics of the community, and 
make a duplicate to be put on file with the county clerk. In one of the 
tw r o oldest counties the county clerk was required to make a third copy for 
additional file and record. 

When the New Englander sold a piece of land he drew a deed and had 
it recorded; even when he agreed to build a house he drew a contract and 
often had it recorded; when he went inland on a voyage of discovery he 
kept a journal; when he shouldered his musket and went on a campaign 
against the French and Indians he made regular reports to the Treasurer at 
War of engagements, casualties, rations issued, muster rolls, and discharges; 
when he went to sea he kept a log book, in which he entered daily events 
of the voyage, soundings and descriptions of new channels, harbors, and 
people; every family had its large Bible, in which were entered the name 
and date of birth of every child, and marriages and deaths in the family; 
when the head of the house died he wrote a will arranging the disposition 
of his property down to the family cow and his musket ami powderhorn. 

Every serious act of a New Englanders life was written down and 
became a matter of public record. His deeds and other papers are record- 
ed in the registry of deeds; his wills are recorded in the probate office; 
his military reports are become official documents in the Secretary oi State's 
office; and his log books have come into the hands of the historical societies. 

Not only did Bradford and Winthrop realize the significance to his- 
tory of the journals they were writing, but it seems to be clear that these 


early colonists had "empire on the brain" and every one was conscious of 
the importance of daily events and felt the responsibility of putting in writ- 
ing and carefully preserving the records of those days. 

It is perfectly marvelous to a man from the West, where there are no 
records at all over 75 years old, or to Southern and Middle-Atlantic-States 
men, where vital records are generally scattered and fragmentary, or not 
to be found, to contemplate here a set of old volumes, kept by a "clerk of 
the writs/' filled with the vital statistics of the town (births, marriages and 
deaths) running back in perfectly consecutive order for nearly 300 years. 
Not only one, but duplicate and sometimes triplicate sets, copied and pre- 
served with constant care, from the very beginning. Of course this habit 
of keeping records was one the English settlers brought with them, but not 
in England or elsewhere, genealogists declare, have such precautionary 
duplicate records been kept. Besides English entries were made only of 
the "noble'' families. Here the records, with democratic thoroughness, 
made note of every man, woman and child, regardless of station or family. 

An}' intelligent person can go to these public records today and trace 
his grandsire to his great-grandsire, his great-grandsire to his great -great- 
grandsire, and so on back to the original emigrant or grantee of the family 
in America. 

The many church records, besides, give verification of the vital records; 
and furnish other interesting information, such as dates of baptisms, of 
communions, of confessions, of dismissals, etc. 

To lawyers the most striking example of this earl}' writing habit is the 
patient and minute detail in which the evidence in court cases is written 
out. In all the colonial days these New Englanders kept a complete record 
of the evidence given by each witness in court. In every case, even petty 
assault cases, all the evidence is written out with the greatest care. That 
is the only reason why we have such a minute account of the witchcraft 
trials. If the evidence in court had been taken as it is today history would 
be mute in regard to the details of these as well as the famous Quaker trials. 
In fact it is doubtful if we would know a thins of them, if it were not for 


this written testimony. This practice was followed carefully throughout 
our whole colonial period. Authorities declare that nowhere else in this 
country or Europe is such a full hand-written record of court testimony 
handed down to us. 

In the days when New England's activities were principally shipping 
and fishing, and half her population lived on the sea, the skippers found 
vent for their literary inclinations on the pages of the ship's log book. In 
ancient "logs" at Salem, New Bedford, Portsmouth, Portland, Newbury- 
port, Newport, Gloucester and Marblehead is an Eldorado mine of rich material 
which a Cooper or a Mahan may some day smelt into the pages of golden 
tale. Thousands of voyages are recorded in these old sea journals, which 
vividly recall a vanished epoch and make it live again. No monotonous 
accounts of latitude, longitude, wind and weather are they. In thrilling 
and minute detail they tell of entering the unknown ports of the world, 
of captivity by pirates, of hair-breadth escapes from cannibals, of deadly 
actions fought with British and French men-of-war, of weary days spent 
in English prisons, of exciting chases, engagements and captures in the days 
of privateering, of trophies brought home from Muscat, Madagascar, Arabia. 
Luzon, Sumatra, and other ports of the far East. These literary skippers 
also industriously recorded accounts of trade, soundings of dangerous chan- 
nels, the habits and traits of the natives, cargoes taken on and cargoes sold. 
charts of unknown harbors, sketches of coast lines, etc. — with the serious 
purpose that their observations should ''tend to the improvement and se- 
curity of navigation." With pen and ink they have left their record behind. 
A record that is simply amazing in its detail and accuracy. In one Library 
at Salem, Mass., there are over 1,000 of these ancient, hand-written volumes 
practically untouched by the historical investigator.* 

In the archives of the six New England States lie gathered and pre- 
served the most precious collections of old State documents to be found 
on the continent. In the Massachusetts state house at Boston, besides 
240 mammoth volumes of papers pertaining to such subjects as "Indian 

*A suggestion of the value of this material can be had by consulting the articles by Ralph 
D. Paine, which appeared in the Outing Magazine in 1908. 


Conferences," "French Neutrals," "Revolutionary Letter.-,"' and legis- 
lative resolves and messages of about the period of the Revolution, there 
aie endless papers antedating the Revolution by 50 to 100 years. The 
original papers of the French and Indian wars are there, giving lists of sick 
soldiers, commissary accounts, bayonet rolls and other details. Back to 
the "twilight of time" in American history go other documents dealing with 
"public lands," as early as 1622, "Indian difficulties" in 1030, "maritime" 
matters in 1641, and with such ancient matters as witchcraft and the care 
of the Acadian fugitives from the land of Evangeline. 

But even now the passion for preservation is not satisfied Many 
of the records are yellow with age and badly worn. "What shall we do to 
re-preserve them?" says the New Englander to himself. "We will print 
them in type," the answer has been, "and distribute copies of the printed 
work in different libraries, so no flood, fire or disaster of any kind can oblit- 
erate them." 

Each of the New England state governments has published in indexed 
form, every scrap and scrimption they have in reference to soldiers and 
sailors who participated in the war of the revolution. 

The State of Massachusetts has entered upon the huge project of sub- 
sidizing the publication of the original records of birth, marriage, and death 
of every individual on record in the books of all the town clerks of the com- 
monwealth (nearly a hundred volumes are completed now), which gives 
an immense facility and impetus to the further investigation of divergent 
branches of family lines and individuals. One historical magazine* nine 
years ago started the sizable task of printing a biographical sketch of every 
commissioned officer in the revolutionary war from Massachusetts, a pro- 
ject made possible by this printing of the state and town records in alpha- 
betical order. 

With such patient practice with the quill and the pen, writing these 
experiences and making these historical records from generation to gen- 
eration, what wonder is it that a literary "atmosphere" was created in New 

*The Massachusetts Magazine, published at Salem, Mass. 


d, and that sons with the gift of happy expression and large bumps 
of language in the tops of their heads were born there. "While they were 
subduing the forests and accomplishing the rough work of civilization there 
arose such writers as Franklin, Hutchinson, Edwards and Adams: and what 
wonder is it that in another generation a multitude of writers appeared who 
made the writing of books a vocation, or an object of remuneration and 
that among them should have appeared such transcendant geniuses as Poe, 
Longfellow, Emerson, Hawthorne, Whittier, Lowell, Webster, and Story? 

What wonder is it that with this supreme appreciation of historical values 
and this faithful habit of making historical record, masters of the art of 
historiography should have been born in Xew England to write the great 
monumental works: Bancrofts History of the United States, and Parkman's 
France and England in North America, which will probably stand for all 
time as exhaustive studies and acknowledged authorities in their respec- 
tive fields? 

What wonder is it that our national history and literature have made 
the average American boy more familiar with such incidents of Xew Eng- 
land history as the Boston tea party, the midnight ride of Paul Revere, 
and Miles Standish's attempt to court Priscilla Mullens, than he is with 
the history of his own state, and that, therefore, every son or daughter of 
a New Englander, and every son of a son, or every daughter of a daughter, 
should look back to New England with particular pride? 

What wonder is it that private zeal has produced .a history of nearly 
every old town in New England. 

What wonder is it that of some 5000 published genealogies of Amer- 
ican families extant today, over SO per cent of them are of New England"? 

What wonder is it that the descendants of these New Englanders plan 
historical pilgrimages to Bunker Hill and Lexington, and read up their fam- 
ily to see what part their sires and kinsmen took in that history? 

When you make a reconnoissance of this persistent writing habit of the 
New Englanders, what wonder is it at all? 

Albert Woodbury Dennis. 


• .•■ 

K3T -I.M1 AH A 

Sntitt^m & (Jommfitt 

mi Hoofyrf anb (fMljec ^ubject^ 

A GAIN in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment, we see evidence of the 
great number of soldiers enlisted in the war of the Revolution, who 
received their initial training in the earlier wars with the French and Ind- 
ians. On page 149, Dr. Gardner says: "Nineteen of the commissioned 
officers of this regiment had seen service in the French and Indian wars 
or in the Provincial Militia." 

/GENEALOGICAL searchers after the English connection of their Amer- 
^^ ican families, should be gratified to know that the enormous collection 
of as-yet-unprinted genealogical material, collected in England, by Henry 
Fitzgilbert Waters, and Lothrop Withington, has been acquired by the Essex 
Institute at Salem. There are over fourteen thousand wills in this col- 
lection, and the collection is said to cover more or less fully most of the pro- 
bate jurisdiction of England, and part of Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
In some cases they represent complete files for years at a time. The In- 
stitute proposes to have them all bound with chronological and alphabet- 
ical arrangement or index, for the genealogical students convenience. The 
Essex Institute is one of the most gracious, unselfish, and accommodating 
of all institutions of its kind. Strangers can be sure of all the assistance 
it has the power to give. 

XI7HERE is the family historian who has not worried over, and vainly 
* * sought for the sons and daughters of our old New England families, who 
left the homes between 1780 and 1850, leaving no trace beyond the trad- 
ition that they went "West"? queried Mr. Flagg, in his introduction to his 
index to Massachusetts pioneers who settled in the State of Michigan: 



(See No. 2, Vol. 1, Massachusetts Magazine). He located nearly over 1600 
sons and daughters of Massachusetts who had settled in that state. 

^^TOW we have compiled an index to Ohio pioneers from Massachusetts, 
■** located in the same way. The first installment of this index, will be 
printed in our January 1917 issue. It has been prepared by Miss Edith 
Cheney, of the catalogue department of the Library of Congress. She 
is a daughter of James W. Cheney, librarian of the War Department Library, 
and the General Staff, U. S. A., and graduated cum laude at George Wash- 
ington University, 1914, with the A. B. and A. M. degrees. Mr. Cheney, 
it may be added is a son of Massachusetts, born at Newburyport. in 1S49, 
and this it is that probably gave Miss Cheney her enthusiasm for the labor- 
orious task she has completed so well. 

' I V HE celebration at New Haven this year of the 200th anniversary of 
one of the many eventful stages in the establishment of Yale College, 
brought out the interesting fact that Yale is very much of a Boston insti- 
tution in sentimental associations. Governor Elihu Yale, from whom it 
derives its name was born in Boston. The charter of Yale was drawn by 
Judge Sewall of Boston. The ten men who were the first trustees of Yale. 
were educated in larger Boston — all being graduates of Harvard. Great 
sympathy and interest in the movement was centered in Boston, because 
it stood for ''stricter theology," and many conservatives of that day did 
not approve of the liberalism toward which Harvard was tending, even in 
that early time. 


T an auction sale of autographs, recently held in New York, autograph 
letters of New England celebrities brought the following prices. 

Colonel Ethan Allen, 2 pages $201 .00 

General Benedict Arnold 67 .50 

General Nathaniel Greene, 3 pages . 100.00 

Henry W. Longfellow, 3 pages 16 .00 


Edgar Allen Poc 155 . 00 

Edgar Allen Poc, 2 pages 250 00 

General Israel Putnam, 2 pages 71 .00 

Benjamin Franklin, 3 pages 132 .50 

John Adams, 2 pages 57 . 50 

Nathaniel Hawthorne 22 . 00 

At the same sale, four letters of Abraham Lincoln brought $210.00, 
§390.00, S550.00 and $460.00. 

' I V HE Massachusetts State Library has long been noted for the splen- 

did collection of documents and documentary material, both printed 
and in manuscript which it contains. It has been known as a source from 
which special information on historical subjects, both social and political, 
might readily be obtained, and on account of its age and dignity its pre- 2 
among state libraries has been acknowledged. But in the work which it 
is now doing for the other libraries of the state it has come forward in the 
most admirable way, and today the organized work of Massachusetts from 
library extension throughout the Commonwealth is not exceeded in re- 
sults accomplished by any libran r commission in the country. — Public 

A FTER twenty-five years of continual sale, running through four editions, 
- the Salem Press Company has just published a much enlarged edition 
of Winfield S. Nevins' Witchcraft in Salem Village, in new and attractive 

Their fifth edition contains a very interesting review of the opinion 
and speculation of many modern writers as to the causes that led to the 
outbreak in Salem, and as to the natural phenomena of witchcraft in gen- 

Prof. Barrett Wendell of Harvard is quoted as saying: "There is 
perhaps reason to doubt whether all the victims of the witch trials were 


Dr. Seymour says: "We all have a vein of superstiton in us. A will 
laugh to scorn B's belief in witches or ghosts, while he himself would not 
undertake a piece of business on a Friday for all the wealth of Croesus; while 
C, who laughs at both, will offer his hand to the palmist in full a=surance 
of faith." 

Regarding Ann Foster of Salem, Prof. Hugo Muensterberg, the great 
German psj^chologist, weaves this interesting thread of subtle logic in ex- 
planation of her confession: "Yet Ann Foster was not insane; the horror 
of accusation had overpowered the distressed mind. We should say today 
that a disassociation of her little mind had set in; the emotional shock 
brought it about; that the normal personality went to pieces and that a 

second personality began to form itself through the hypnotizing 


A most remarkable conclusion is that of Air. Allen PutDam, who after 
long study, wrote in 1880: "Our position, fortified by the facts and reason- 
ing in the preceding pages is, that spirits — departed human beings — gen- 
erated and outwrought Salem witchcraft." Mr. Nevins knew Mr. Put- 
nam well and says whatever one may think of this opinion, however ridic- 
ulous it may appear to others, "it is to be admitted the author of these 
sentiments was a worthy and honorable citizen, and that he gave most dil- 
igent stud} r to all the witchcraft cases in New England." 

Samuel Adams Drake, one of the most natural and lovable of all stu- 
dents of New England folk lore, confesses that he "found himself baffled 
to a degree beyond that of any other event in the whole range of mystery. 
to account satisfactorily for the conduct of the youDg females, through whose 
instrumentality it was carried on. It required more devilish ability to 
deceive, adroitness to blend the understanding, and to keep up a conscious- 
ness of that ability among themselves, than ever fell to the lot of a like num- 
ber of imposters in any age of which the writer has ever read." 

Not the least interesting of the new material in the book is the reference 
to many cases of witchcraft of recent times. Mr. Nevins has Long been 
recognized as a most diligent student of the subject of witchcraft, as it man- 


ifested itself in Salem and vicinity, and his book the standard work on the 
subject. This new and extensive chapter adds peculiar interest to the new 

' I V HE figure of Joseph Putnam has always remained fixed in our mind as 
one of the most noble and dramatic in the sad tragedy of the witchcraft 
story. Mr. Nevins does not make much of him or his part in the story, 
but it has always appeared to us that his courageous outstanding defiance 
of public opinion in the midst of the insane delirium must have done much 
towards bringing other men to their senses again. The world pays high honor 
to its men of fearless and unconquerable will. Martyrs to religion, martyrs 
to patriotism and martyrs to scientific discovery are extolled as leaders of the 
world and uplifters of the souls of mankind. All honor to Joseph Putnam, 
who in the darkest hour, when no man's life was safe, when men of military 
rank, men of the pulpit, women of highest character and standing, all were 
sacrificed in the tempest; when if a man dared to enter defense for his own 
wife/ he too could be accused and hung (as was John Proctor) — when, in 
such a dangerous time, he dared to openly voice his disapproval and condem- 
nation of the proceedings, he exhibited not only his soundness of mind, but 
all the moral courage and fearlessness of martyrs of song and story. That 
he measured his words and knew full well the danger of his course is man- 
ifest by the fact that he kept his horse saddled and bridled day and night 
read}' to flee at a moment's notice, and himself and family armed to defend 
his life. This was notice that he did not intend to be taken alive, and 
it is significant that no attempt was ever made to arrest him. 

TJRIVATELY printed at the University Press and sent out "with the 
A regards of the author" is a dainty little volume entitled ''Personal Rec- 
ollections 11 — Robert S. Rantoul. Mr. Rantoul was born June 2, 1832, and he 
is now in his 85th year. With a mind as clear as ever he writes most inter- 
estingly of prominent persons he has met, and of the changes that have 
taken place in his day. 


The volume is small and the binding is a cream white, an unusual color 
for a book of reminiscences, but it seems not inappropriate to its contents, 
which is pervaded by the sunshine of humor, and a cheerful sprightliness 
throughout. Xo sore spots are exhibited; no opportunity is made to ex- 
plain his side of any controversy. Just the glow and cheer of a mind at- 
tuned to high thinking and the sunny side of life. 

It has that engaging interest which makes one want to carry it with 
him — keep it in hand until it is finished. 

In his earlier years he just escaped being editor-in-chief of the Boston 
Transcript, was in the legislature, was mayor of Salem several terms, was 
collector of the port of Salem in Lincoln's administration, an accompli- - 
speaker, and orator-of-the-day on numerous formal occasions. 

A considerable space is devoted to persons and facts connected with 
the murder of Captain "White at Salem, which is celebrated above many 
others of like kind by Daniel Webster's connection with the case, as counsel. 
His plea was one of the great efforts of his career. 

Mr. Rantoul's keenly observant mind makes many unimportant parfe of 
his reminiscences the most interesting. Thus he remarks of his first visit 
to New York in 1854: "New York was a half baked township then. Goats 
and pigs pervaded the streets and a half dead horse was left lying in full 
sight across the square for several days. . . .Twenty-third street was near- 
ly staked out, and I dined at one of the half dozen houses just built on the 
down-in-town side of it".... from there on to Harlem "was nothing but 
a waste of gravel pits dotted over with the shanties of day laborers and their 
goat sheds and pig sties. .. .Central park was not dreamed of.'' 

His recital of several years residence in Germany abounds with interes- 
ing observations. 

And most of his references to celebrated Americans he has met are 
hit off with realistic details. Among them were John A. Andrew, John 
Wright, Richard H. Dana, Ralph Waldo Emerson, General Grant, Abraham 
Lincoln, General Sherman and Daniel Webster. 

One is struck by this remark at the close of the volume: 



"It remains only to close this retrospect of a long life. If it gave 
promise of more than it has made good, I may plead that as a race, 
we mature early." 

It is said that toward the end of his life Wendell Phillips expressed 
a feeling of dissatisfaction with himself, and what he had accomplished 
in the world — in spite of his imperishable fame as orator and abolitionist. 
Mr. Rantoul has been the first citizen of Salem for a score of years; 
was chief executive officer of the Essex Institute in the most important period 
of its history — when it regenerated itself with a policy of thorough self- 
inspection and classification and made itself tenfold more useful to the world 
than ever it had been before; he has blessed the world with a large and wor- 
thy family; and he has enriched the local literature of his city as has no other 
man in his day. 

"\¥7TTH that faithful quest and intelligent care that only love of the task 
T can inspire, Benjamin J. Lindsey of Marblehead, has sifted the custom 
house records of Marblehead, Beverly and Salem, Marine insurance rec- 
ords, log books, old newspaper files and other sources, so thoroughly that 
he believes his attractive volume, "Marblehead Sea Captains and the Ships 
in Which They Sailed," is very nearly complete, ''though the list of vessels 
is not as satisfactory, it being at this late date practically impossible to ob- 
tain complete information." 

The records of five hundred hardy sea captains he has compiled, with 
their date of birth or baptism, and a list of their vessels and year date. From 
descendants of these men, scattered through Marblehead, Salem, Boston 
and distant states he has procured copies of old oil paintings, ambrotypes 
and daguerreotypes of eighty-one of these sea captains, and fifty-eight pic- 
tures of their vessels. These with sixteen other documents, maps, and 
harbor scenes, makes up the total of 155 halftones with which the book is 
profusely illustrated. 

In spite of the thoroughness evidenced by Mr. Lindsey's completed 
work, it remains true that most of these records are painfully lacking in 


detail. Data gleaned from custom house records, and log books, are meagre 
and bare. But one needs not much gift of imagination in studying the 
portraits of these strong faces to read into their lives some of the danger 
and courage of their days. Particularly when he looks at their proud si 
and catches here and there such illuminating scraps of information as the 

Captain Wm. Stacey, like many another Marblehead boy, was a sailor 
at a very early age, being on a privateer during the war of IS 12, at Id years 
of age was captured by the English and taken to Dartmoor Prison, and kept 
a prisoner for a number of years. At 24 he was in command of a vessel. 

Thomas Barker was attacked by pirates while on passage to Balboa 
with a cargo of fish and oil." 

Captain Richard Brown, of the "Rattler" was the Mr. Brown men- 
tioned in Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast," as mate of the "Alert." 

Captain Candler served on the Frigate Constitution in the war of IS 12. 

Captain Hector Cowell Dixey rescued many lives from the burning 
steamer "Missouri" in mid-ocean. 

Josiah Perkins Cressy, was in command of the "Flying Cloud," which 
twice (1851 and 1S54) made the passage from New York to California in 
89 days, a record never equalled by any other sailing ship. The merchants 
of San Francisco, always generous and hospitable vied with each other to 
do him honor. Upon his return to New York, a banquet was given him, 
at the Astor House. 

Captain Joseph Orne, and all his men were slaughtered by Arabs and 
his ship "Essex" plundered and burnt at Hadido, near Mocha. 

"Captured and committed to old Mill Prison, England," appears many 
times through the pages. 

Nearly all of the pictures were taken from originals that have never 
been in print before. 

But one of the 500 captains is alive today: Captain John D. Whidden, 
now living in Los Angeles, California. 

It is a most valuable work for his town, and for descendants of old Mar- 
blehead everywhere, which Mr. Lindsey has performed. 


' I V HE diarist, Dr. William Bentley, referring to the death of Captain 
A John D. Dennis, "who died loinst (Sept. 181G) at Marblehead, at 77 r 
was President of the Marblehead Marine Society and much respected," 
paid the following tribute to the sturdy character of these Marblehead 
men, many of whom were still living, some even in their prime, at that time: 
The many aged muscular men in Marblehead discovers the true char- 
acter of their employment. No men endure fatigue longer, and have more 
presence of mind in danger, in things the}* propose, and when under their 
command. Such are their habits in the fishery They make often trouble- 
some merchants, and they make awkward soldiers. But no men are equal 
to them in things which they know how to do from habit. No one more 
persevering or so fearless." 

T7DGAR JAMES BANKS, Ph. D., son of Massachusetts, archaeological 
-*^ explorer, field director of Babylonian expeditions for the University of 
Chicago, discoverer of the white statue of King David, a king who reigned 
before the time of Babylonia, some 6000 years ago, probably the oldest statue 
known to man today, — has written a wonderfully interesting book entitled 
• 4 The Seven Wonders of the World." It is astonishing to see how much 
modern science has discovered, literally unearthed, about these creations 
of man's hand, so old that the latest encyclopedias are able to tell us almost 
nothing of their history. Mr. Banks was born in Sunderland, Mass. The 
book is published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York; price $1.50. 

/^N an evening in the middle of August, 1862, at a large meeting in this 
^^ city, Josiah Quincy took a newspaper cutting from his pocket and read 
before an enthusiastic audience "the latest poem written by Mr. William Cullen 
Bryant." The poem was "We are coming, Father Abraham." which was 
set to music immediately, upon the order of a Boston publisher, by the 
late Dr. Luther Orlando Emerson. 

Others also set the stirring lines to music, and among the comp 
was one of the famous Hutchinson family of singers of Lynn who rendered 
valuable services as aids to recruiting through much of the war period. A 
mutual friend one day told Jesse Hutchinson that the song was written. 


not by Bryant, but by his old Quaker friend, Gibbons. The singer hesitated 
a minute and then remarked: "Well we'll keep the name Bryant as we 
have it; he's better known than Gibbons." 

The mistake came about in this way. the verses appeared anonymously 
in the New York Evening Post of July 1G, 18G2; no author's name was men- 
tioned; William Cullen Bryant was then the editor of the newspaper; the 
lines naturally enough were promptly attributed to him. The de- 
composers who set the verses to music supposed that Bryant was the writer, 
and such incidents as those recounted above helped to create the mistaken 
impression which has persisted until this day. The error was repeated 
in the Emerson obituaries which appeared in The Herald and other papers 
and which were presumed to be authentic by those who commented upon 
the influence which the song exerted in war time. Even such a reference 
work as "Who's Who" ascribe the poem to Bryant. 

The story of John S. Gibbons is interesting. He was a Hicksite Quaker, 
described by his son-in-law as "having a reasonable leaning toward wrath 
in cases of emergency." He joined the abolition movement in 1S30. married 
the daughter of the Quaker philantropist, Isaac T. Hopper, in 1833, and 
became known as a writer upon financial topics, serving for a time as 
financial editor of the Evening Post. At the outbreak of the war his wife 
and oldest daughter went to the front for hospital service. While they 
were absent the riots of 1863 occurred, and the home in Xew York was 
sacked; the father and the younger daughters took refuge in a neighbor- 
ing house, and thence escaped over the roofs to a point where Joseph H. 
Choate had a carriage awaiting them. The mob marked the Gibbon-' 
home for this attention because it had been illuminated when the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation was issued. 

It was in the dark days of 18G2 that Lincoln asked for 300,000 volun- 
teers. Gibbons was then in the habit of taking long walks for meditations, 
and he says that as he walked he "began to con over a song. The words 
seemed to fall into ranks and files and to come with a measured step. Di- 
rectly would came along a file of soldiers with fife and drum and that helped 
matters amazingly. I began to keep step myself." Thus in the course 
of several evenings was composed the recruiting lyric, "We are coming. 
Father Abraham, three hundred thousand strong." 

The correspondent of The Herald whose husband stood by the Presi- 
dent while some troops sang the song will be interested also to know that 
Brander Matthews refers to an account of Lincoln's coming down to the 
Red Room in the White House one morning to "listen with bowed bead 
and patient, pensive eyes while one of a party of visitors" sang the vers* - 
Boston Herald. 


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Charles Knowles Bolton 
Librarian of the Boston 
; - n Athenaeum. 


OCTOBER, 1915 

£w??j *$ Vl5\ 

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Author's names itcaliized 

American Antiquarian Society, library 

of, 3. 
Art Dept. of the Boston Athenaeum, illus- 
tration, opp. 118. 
Athenaeum, The Boston, library, 115. 
Brewer's regiment, 137, 189. 
Church discipline in ye olden time, 127. 
Criticism and comment, 45, 107, 154, 211. 
Days, The good old, 73. 
Dennis. Albert W. , Witchcraft not extinct, 


The writing habit in New England, 205 

Edwards, Agnes, Library of the American 

Antiquarian Society, 3. 
The Boston Athenaeum library 

Fosdick, Raymond D., The good old days, 73 
Gardner, Frank A., M. D., Col. Jonathan 

Brewer's regiment, 137, 189. 
Col. Moses Little's regiment. 18 

.Col. Joseph Reed's regt., S" 

Home of the American Antiquarian Society 
in Worcester, illustration, opp. 9. 

Home of Col. Joseph Stebbins, illustration, 
opp. 64. 

Home of the Boston Athenaeum, illustra- 
tion, opp. 116. 

Jones, Ralph Mortimer, Church discipline 
in ye olden time, 127. 

Little's regiment, IS. 

Read's regiment, 87. 

Reading room of the Boston Athenaeum, 
illustration, opp. 118. 

Sanborn, Frank B., Hector St. John, an eva- 
sive planter, 163. 

Sheldon, George, Joseph Stebbins. 59. 

Stebbins, Joseph, 59. 

St. John, Hector, An evasive planter, 163. 

Witchcraft not extinct. 184. 

Writing habit, The, in New England, 205. 


Copyright, 11 
The Salem Press C 

2733 X